Celtis occidentalis, commonly called common hackberry, is a medium to large sized deciduous tree that typically grows 40-60’ (less frequently to 100’) tall with upright-arching branching and a rounded spreading crown. [5] In the western part of its range, trees may still grow up to 29 m (95 ft). Specific gravity, 0.7287; weight of cu. Hackberry (Celtis occidentalis) is one of our most common trees in Iowa. The common hackberry is native to North America from southern Ontario and Quebec, through parts of New England, south to North Carolina-(Appalachia), west to northern Oklahoma, and north to South Dakota. The fruit is a reddish drupe (the same form as a cherry, a fleshy fruit with a hard inner layer around the seed). Boon, Bill. Some, including common hackberry (C. occidentalis) and C. brasiliensis, are honey plants and pollen source for honeybees of lesser importance. In the western part of its range, trees may still grow up to 29 m (95 ft). Mature gray bark develops corky ridges and warty texture. … Trunk diameter ranges from 1-3 (less frequently to 4). hackberry Ulmaceae Celtis occidentalis L. symbol: CEOC Leaf: Alternate, simple, ovate, 2 to 5 inches long, serrated margin, pinnately veined, with acuminate tip and an inequilateral base, three distinct veins originate from base, maybe hairy or scruffy, green above and paler and somewhat pubescent below. General Information. It prefers rich moist soil, but will grow on gravelly or rocky hillsides. Hackberry's range overlaps with the sugarberry (Celtis laevigata), making it difficult to establish the exact range of either species in the South. Fruit, cone, nut, and seed descriptions. Celtis occidentalis is mostly associated with moist soils along streams in Wisconsin, north at least to the Peshtigo River in southern Marinette County, but … The birds relish the purplish-black fruit. Tolerates strong winds, pollution, heat, drought and salt. The Garden wouldn't be the Garden without our Members, Donors and Volunteers. Native Range: Central and northeastern North America, Suggested Use: Shade Tree, Street Tree, Rain Garden, Tolerate: Drought, Clay Soil, Wet Soil, Air Pollution. Warty, corky bark covers the trunk. Hackberry wood is sometimes used in cabinetry and woodworking. Habitat: Found on … Ovate to oblong-ovate, rough-textured, glossy to dull green leaves (2-5” long) have mostly uneven leaf bases and are coarsely toothed from midleaf to acuminate (sharply pointed) tip. The common hackberry is a medium-sized tree, 9 to 15 metres (30 to 50 ft) in height, with a slender trunk. Fruits are attractive to a variety of wildlife. The winter buds are axillary, ovate, acute, somewhat flattened, one-fourth of an inch long, light brown. It is common in Missouri where it typically occurs statewide in low woods along streams and in drier upland slopes (Steyemark). The fruit is a fleshy, oblong drupe, 1⁄4 to 3⁄8 in (0.64 to 0.95 cm) long, tipped with the remnants of style, dark purple when ripe. Elm family (Ulmaceae) Description:At maturity, this tree is typically 40-80' tall, forming a straightcentral trunkand an ovoid crown. Powdery mildew, leaf spot and root rot may occur. Female flowers give way to an often abundant fruit crop of round fleshy berry-like drupes maturing to deep purple. The small berries, hackberries, are eaten by a number of birds,[8] including robins and cedar waxwings,[9] and mammals. Forms characteristic corky ridges and warts on trunk and branches. [3] It is a moderately long-lived[3] hardwood[3] with a light-colored wood, yellowish gray to light brown with yellow streaks.[4]. Hackberries provide a food source for a wide variety of birds and wildlife, including game birds and opossum. The leaf has three nerves, the midrib and primary veins prominent. occidentalis : common hackberry Classification. It has a handsome round-topped head and pendulous branches. Ripen in late summer, persisting through winter. In favorable conditions its seedlings will persist under a closed canopy, but in less favorable conditions it can be considered shade intolerant. (1990) p 227 Parts Shown: Flower, Fruit, Bark, Habit, Leaf, Twig Photo It is common in Missouri where it typically occurs statewide in low woods along streams and in drier upland slopes (Steyemark). The bark is gray, thick, and extremely rough, scored with deep furrows and ridges. Leaves are wider than Celtis laevigata and more serrated. They look almost identical and for our purposes will be considered the same plant. Moderate water needs once established. In autumn they turn to a light yellow. The hackberry has simple, alternate, pointed, finely toothed leaves. General Information. [11] Omaha Native Americans ate the berries casually, while the Dakota used them as a flavor for meat, pounding them fine, seeds and all. [5] The endocarp contains significant amounts of biogenic carbonate that is nearly pure aragonite.[7]. Hackberry has characteristic wart-like bark and dark-red to purple fruits, lending itself well to bird-centric landscapes. There are many species of hackberry found around the world, and several native to North America. They are born on slender drooping pedicels. This tree may be used as a lawn tree or street tree. Botanical Name: Celtis occidentalis; Common Name: Common Hackberry The leaves are alternately arranged on the branchlets, ovate to ovate-lanceolate, often slightly falcate,[5] 5–12 cm (2–4 3⁄4 in) long by 3–9 cm (1 1⁄4–3 1⁄2 in),[6] very oblique at the base, with a pointed tip. Fleshy parts of the fruit are edible and somewhat sweet. The bark is light brown or silvery gray, broken on the surface into thick appressed scales and sometimes roughened with excrescences; the pattern is very distinctive. Pronunciation: SELL-tiss ock-sih-den-TAY-liss. Differences are so small as to only be of concern to some biologist. In the best conditions in the southern Mississippi Valleyarea, it can grow to 40 metres (130 ft). The branchlets are slender, and their color transitions from light green to red brown and finally to dark red-brown. crassifolia (Lam.) The common hackberry is easily distinguished from elms and some other hackberries by its cork-like bark with wart-like protuberances. The common hackberry also has wider leaves that are coarser above than the sugarberry. The tree forms a rounded vase reaching a height of 40 to 80 feet, is a rapid grower, and transplants easily (Fig. [3] The maximum age attained by hackberry is probably between 150 and 200 years in ideal conditions.[3]. Scientific name: Celtis occidentalis. Black fruit are produced on the ends of long, drooping pedicels in late summer. Common name (s): Common hackberry. Celtis can tolerate wind, pollution and a wide range of soil conditions, including wet, dry and poor soils. The name hackberry originated from the Scottish "hagberry" which in England was the common name bird cherry. It prefers rich moist soil, but will grow on gravelly or rocky hillsides. Common Hackberry (Celtis occidentalis) CommonHackberry. This tree is a U.S. native that is widely distributed throughout the east and midwest. Celtis occidentalis, commonly called common hackberry, is a medium to large sized deciduous tree that typically grows 40-60 (less frequently to 100) tall with upright-arching branching and a rounded spreading crown. It is in flower in May, and the seeds ripen in October. Although the galls do not hurt the tree, they often significantly disfigure the leaves. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Bees. Nature's Heartland: Native Plant...Great Plains. When the tree reaches 3 inches in caliper, it looks very much like an elm. Produces small, dark red drupes about 1/3" in diameter that turn dark purple as they mature in mid-autumn. Trunk bark is gray to brownish gray, forming wartyirregular ridges. Click on a scientific name below to expand it in the PLANTS Classification Report. The Common Hackberry is botanically called Celtis occidentalis. Known hazards of Celtis occidentalis: With age, the bark becomes increasingly scaly andrough-textured. Family: Ulmaceae. Hackberries have a thin, very sweet purple skin surrounding a crunchy shell with … 1). Rough green leaves are coarsely toothed from mid-leaf to pointy tip. Acidic, Alkaline, Clay, Drought, Loamy, Moist, Rich, Sandy, Well Drained, Wet. Undistinguished yellow fall color.Genus name comes from the Greek name for another tree.Specific epithet means Western. It remains on the branches during winter. Hackberry is a member of the elm family, but is a different genus. I have tried the flesh around the drupe, and it is very good. Sombor in Serbia and Bratislava, the capital of Slovakia, are known for the extensive use of hackberry (in the latter case along with closely related but Eurasian Celtis australis) as a street tree. It rots easily, making the wood undesirable commercially, although it is occasionally used for fencing and cheap furniture. Also tolerates wind, many urban pollutants and a wide range of soil conditions, including both wet, dry and poor soils. These berry-like fruit persist into the winter. This tree is a member of the Cannabis (marijuana) family. US native known for attracting birds and wildlife. Coins as large as USA quarters can easily be laid flat against the valleys, which may be as deep as an adult human finger. The tree's pea-sized berries are edible, ripening in early September. occidentalis: Latin meaning western (named by Linnaeus) in comparison with australis, southern. Celtis occidentalis, or Hackberry, is a deciduous tree, native to North Carolina, that commonly grows to 30 to 40 feet in height and 1 to 2 feet in diameter, but on the best sites, may reach a height of 130 feet and a diameter of 4 feet or more. CEOCC3: Celtis occidentalis L. var. Suitable for: light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils, prefers well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. Celtis occidentalis, commonly known as the common hackberry, is a large deciduous tree native to North America. This tree is a U.S. native that is widely distributed throughout the east and midwest. Over 2 dozen species of birds eat the ripe, black berries (drupes), including pheasants, wild turkeys, cedar waxwings, yellow-bellied sapsucker, and … The fruit temporarily stains walks. Does well as a street tree. [5], The calyx is light yellow green, five-lobed, divided nearly to the base; lobes linear, acute, more or less cut at the apex, often tipped with hairs, imbricate in bud.