Combretum bracteosum leaves; Hits: 995 ; Combretum collinum in the Kruger National Park in January; Hits: 2130 ... Combretum imberbe after hard times; Hits: 298 ; Combretum imberbe bark; Hits: 120 ; Combretum imberbe bole and lower parts; Hits: 134 The Combretum imberbe is a very tall, high-branching, majestic tree that grows very slowly. Eloff et al. The wood is extremely hard and heavy and takes a long time to decay, making this a wonderful lookout tree for all kinds of wildlife. The phytochemical analysis (qualitative et quantitative) was conducted by standard analytical chemistry method. Leaves and bark of Combretum roxburghii was collected from medicinal germplasm garden of Regional Plant Research Centre, Bhubaneswar in the months of February, May, July and October. The leaves are believed to have magical powers. The author suggested that MAG possesses both centrally- and peripherally-mediated with help from Some leaves turn red or yellow at any time of the year (photos 740 & 758). Combretum imberbe is the most impressive of our combretums; even when dead, leadwood presents an imposing display. Combretum imberbe. Briza Publications, Pretoria. Van Wyk, B-E. & Gericke, N. 2000. ), which would afford it protection in terms of Section 12 of the National Forests Act, 1998 (Act No. If you would like to support this site, please consider, N. Juergens; Photo Guide to Plants of Southern African plants. A semi-deciduous tree with a sparse, roundish crown. Combretum imberbe Wawra var. Common names: Hardekool, Elephant Trunk, Tusk Tree, Ivory tree, Ironwood, Bastard Yellow Wood, Leadwood. For treatment of diarrhoea and stomach pains, root decoctions are used. The simple and usually … Combretum imberbe has a non-aggressive root system and can be planted in larger gardens. dielsii Engl., Combretum imberbe Wawra var. Margins are entire. A leadwood tree is certainly one of the most iconic trees, found in the Kruger National Park - the light grey bark with a “little blocks” appearance stands out from all the other trees. Leaves elliptic to obovate, often on short, spine-like lateral shoots, grey-green above, hairless, but covered in whitish scales beneath. Previous Names: Combretum primigenum. The small, white, puffball flowers, borne from September to March, are very fragrant and attract a myriad of insects and birds. Preliminary experiments indicated that the leaves of this plant contain antibacterial compounds that do not occur in other . Africans used this wood to make hoes before metal was discovered. The flowers are yellowish cream-coloured and have a sweet fragrance. The species name, imberbe, is derived from the Latin name referring to the lack of hairs on the plant. It has a spreading canopy and is extremely slow growing. & Diels, Combretum primigenum Engl. (2012). (Bushwlillow family). Crude protein (CP) content of fresh leaves was highest in Lonchocarpus capassa with 23.9% and lowest in Combretum imberbe with 6.08%. Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. In Autumn, they turn red before they get shed in winter. Leadwood Tree or Ivory Tree, Combretum imberbe, is a tropical, slow-growing, deciduous tree of about 21 m tall. The Leadwood tree, Combretum Imberbe, is part of the plant family Combretaceae, which has at least 250 species. The RSA genera with trees include Combretum, Lumnitzera, Pteleopsis and Terminalia. The simple, oblong leaves are arranged oppositely and silvery grey in colour with red scales. Remarkable trees of southern Africa . Combretum imberbe is the most impressive of our combretums; even when it is dead, leadwood presents an imposing display, with its almost white trunk and gigantic main branches soaring above the surrounding bush. Leaves are simple, opposite, sometimes is whorls of three on young branches, elliptic to obovate. It is widespread in Lowveld areas and grows along streams and rivers. Combretum imberbe is the tallest of all the South African combretums. Root bark that is boiled in water is used for tanning leather. Dead branches and shoots often remain on a matured tree. Janka Hardness: 3,570 lb f (15,880 N) Modulus of Rupture: 20,960 lb f /in 2 (144.5 MPa)* & Diels LC In this family, there are about 16 genera, which contain about 530 species. Combretaceae, A. W. Exell. It has grey-green simple leaves about 6cm long that are arranged alternately along the stems. It has a spreading canopy and is extremely slow growing. Local plant use and traditional conservation practices in Nhema communal area, Zimbabwe. ex G.Don LC; Combretum mossambicense (Klotzsch) Engl. If you have any useful information about this plant, please leave a comment. Last update on 2019-06-13: Now containing 11906 plants. The magnificent leadwood is a medium to large, semi-deciduous tree, which grows up to 20 m in height. The inconspicuous pale green flowers form spikes, … Its bark cracks in rectangular flakes and the young branches and twigs have hard spines. Richard Morris. Leaves from Combretum imberbe traditionally used to treat symptoms of malaria in most parts of Southern Africa were studied for interaction of its crude methanolic, ethyl acetate and hexane extracts with hemin a product of hemoglobin degradation in 40% water-dimethylsulphoxide at pH 9, 7.4 and 5 using a spectrophotometric method. The pale grey bark is cracked into rectangular blocks. The Combretum imberbe is a very tall, high-branching, majestic tree that grows very slowly. Patrick MtsweniWalter Sisulu National Botanical GardenApril 2006, SA Distribution: Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, North West, Flowering season: Early Summer, Late Summer. Combretum imberbe. The database and code is licensed under a This work aims to study the phytochemical and assess some biological activities of C. adenogonium leaves extracts. Leaves elliptic to obovate, often on short, spine-like lateral shoots, grey-green above, hairless, but covered in whitish scales beneath. They are produced from November to March. Common names: leadwood (Eng. Sappi tree spotting. It is also found in Mpumalanga, Limpopo, North-West Province, Mozambique, and into tropical Africa. 84 of 1998). LC; Combretum microphyllum Klotzsch LC; Combretum mkuzense J.D.Carr & Retief NT; Combretum moggii Exell LC; Combretum molle R.Br. Combretum imberbe is the tallest of all the South African combretums. Leaves opposite, verticillate or more rarely alternate, usually petiolate, almost always entire, often conspicuously lepidote. Combretum imberbe (Combretaceae). The phytochemical analysis (qualitative et quantitative) was conducted by standard analytical chemistry method. Click here to register. The bark is rough and cracks vertically into a netted pattern (reticulate). Briza Publications, Pretoria. & Diels LC; Combretum patelliforme Engl. Look out for rodents because they enjoy the seeds, while livestock pose a threat to early life stages such as seeds and seedlings. International Journal of African Renaissance Studies - Multi-, Inter- … The twigs and leaves are hairless as the name imberbe suggests. Distribution: From South Africa north to Tanzania. People's plants . Description: Mar 3, 2017 - Observation - Tree 2 - Southern Africa. ), where the bush is studded with tall leadwoods that live up to their scientific name; combretum imberbe, meaning “hairless climber”. Young leaves white or light green. Hardy, huge, deciduous tree which can grow to tremendous old age. In spring, the tree bears small, lightly scented greenish-yellow flowers. The leadwood is a protected tree in South Africa. 1978. Useful Tropical Plants Database 2014 by Combretum imberbe has greyish colored leaves and a neat up-right trunk. Coates Palgrave, M. 2002. Struik, Cape Town. The silvery-green leaves are unusually small for a Combretum. Combretum adenogonium is beniniens pharmacopoeia medicinal plant used for the treatment of various diseases. 1978. The leathery leaves are arranged opposite each other. The simple, oblong leaves are arranged oppositely and silvery grey in colour with red scales. The plant genus Combretum (Combretaceae) is widely distributed and is used by populations of various Southern African countries (Botswana, Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia, Zimbabwe) for medicinal purposes. Combretum imberbe (Leadwood) Family: Combretaceae. Leaves are simple, opposite, sometimes is whorls of three on young branches, elliptic to obovate. Combretum imberbe Wawra Selected images: Click on each image to see a larger version and details of the record View all images ... young stems with spine-like opposite branchlets. They are simple (have a single blade which may have incisions that are not deep enough to divide the leaf into leaflets). Several plant parts are used in traditional med… The bole, which is usually crooked, can be up to 100cm in diameter [ 299 Protabase - … Gardening with indigenous trees and shrubs. Flora Zambesiaca 4. This work aims to study the phytochemical and assess some biological activities of C. adenogonium leaves extracts. ); motswiri (Pedi); ummono (Sotho); mondzo (Tsonga); motswere (Tswana); umbondwe omnyama (Zulu); mohwelere-tshipi (Northern Sotho); muhiri (Venda); omumboromboga (Herero). The seeds should be pressed down and covered with a thin layer of sand, and should be kept moist, not planted too deep and not given too much water. The first things to catch Meg’s eye were the silvery leaves of Combretum imberbe. Leaves - Simple, opposite, broadly elliptic with a smooth margin. BioCentre Klein Flottbek, Hamburg, Germany, http://apps.kew.org/efloras/fz/intro.html, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. The gum that exudes from damaged areas on the stem is edible and forms part of the diet of the Bushmen. Bark pale to dark grey, deeply fissured lengthwise with irregular horizontal cracks; young stems with spine-like opposite branchlets. The snakeskin-like bark is one of the main features that make identification easier throughout the season. Combretum imberbe. Combretaceae in South Africa . species. While most of the species in the combretum family are small to medium sized trees or shrubs, the Leadwood is one of the largest trees in Africa, capable of attaining a height of 20 meters. Margins are entire. Combretum imberbe is widespread in northern Namibia. 539. Combretum adenogonium is beniniens pharmacopoeia medicinal plant used for the treatment of various diseases. Making the most of indigenous trees. The trunk was used to build an enclosure (kraal ) and grain stamping mortars and these days it is used for furniture and sculptures. The leaves and fruits are used in white magic. The results of this laboratory animal study indicate that MAG possesses analgesic and antiinflammatory effects in the mammalian models used. Leadwood ash is used as a toothpaste. Combretum imberbe – Leadwood – Hardekool. Allergies/Toxicity: Although there are no specific reports on Combretum imberbe, other species in the Combretum genus (particularly C. kraussii) have been reported to cause skin irritation. Edible gum is obtained from the tree and used for confectionary. The aqueous and organic crude extracts of the two plants were tested on Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei, Serratia marcescens, Helicobacter pylori Description. [94] were the first to report that a stilbene, 2′,3′,4-trihydroxyl-3,5,4′-trimethoxybibenzyl (combretastatin B5) (76) (Figure 12.14), isolated from a chloroform fraction of South African Combretum woodii leaves, has significant antibacterial effects against S. aureus (MIC: 16 μg/mL) as well as some activity against the gram-negative E. coli and P. aeruginosa (MIC: 125 μg/mL). When the seedlings reach the second leaf stage, they should be transplanted into nursery bags. The lowest amount of CP recorded in old browse leaves was 6.09% in Maytenus senegalensis and the highest amount was found to be 13.4% in Colophospermum mopane. Its bark cracks in rectangular flakes and the young branches and twigs have hard spines. Comments have to be approved before they are shown here. Balkema, Cape Town. Combretum imberbe Wawra Selected images: Click on each image to see a larger version and details of the record View all images ... young stems with spine-like opposite branchlets. Total images in all categories: 9,961 Total number of hits on all images: 4,658,119 Combretum . Common Trees In Botswana As a guide it is important to have a good knowledge of the plants in your area of operation as well as their taxonomic classification from family to species. Extracts prepared from Combretum erythrophyllum were shown to display significant antiplasmodial activity (IC 50 ranging from 0.70 to 10.68 μg/mL), with the leaves being most active (IC … Kaiserl. The leadwood produces 4-winged fruit, which are yellowish green and turn pale red when mature from February to June. The record derives from WCSP (in review) (data supplied on 2012-03-23) which reports it as an accepted name with original publication details: Sitzungsber. These slow growing trees mature as magnificent specimens with … Southern Books, Cape Town. web interface by Seedlings will germinate after two weeks. Ken Fern, A useful plant for a medium-large bird garden. 1996. The author suggested that MAG possesses both centrally- and peripherally-mediated Leaves Leaves opposite, verticillate or rarely alternate, usually petiolate (rarely subsessile), almost always entire; petiole sometimes persisting (especially in climbers) forming a ± hooked spine. Combretum imberbe Wawra QDS maps by: Google Maps Point records by Google Maps All records: View Zimbabwe records only Records of this taxon from all countries are shown in the table below. Combretum molle leaves, have been investigated in mice and rats [81]. Combretum imberbe (leadwood, Afrikaans: hardekool, Sotho: mohwelere-tÅ¡hipi, Tsonga: motswiri/mondzo, Zulu: impondondlovu) is a characteristic and often impressive bushwillow species of the southern Afrotropics.The medium to large tree [1] has a sparse, semi-deciduous canopy of grey-green leaves. The leadwood is rarely cultivated but it makes a fine shade tree, though it is big for an average garden. Combretum imberbe The tallest of all South African bush-willows, the leadwood grows some 20m high. The grey-brown trunk is gnarled and crooked, giving the tree a unique and magical charm. The Leadwood tree, Combretum Imberbe, is part of the plant family Combretaceae, which has at least 250 species. Pentacyclic triterpenoid rhamnosides from Combretum imberbe leaves. Medium to large deciduous tree. SOURCE, TYPE AND GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION OF THREATS TO THE SPECIES C. imberbe is favoured for its durable heartwood which is used for a variety of functions, most petersii (Klotzsch) Engl. The leaves darken and become glossy when maturing. Combretum molle leaves, have been investigated in mice and rats [81]. Parts of this tree are used by various tribes in a number of ways: smoke that comes from the burning leaves has been used to relieve coughs, colds and chest complaints. Leadwood (e), Hardekool (a), imPondondlovu (z), Mohwwelere-tshipi (ns),mmMondzo (tso), Motswiri (setsw), umMondo (Sw), muheri (v). The leadwood can be found in all the bushveld regions and in mixed forest in southern Africa. Uses. She showed me how the scales on this tree’s leaves are visible to the naked eye on both sides of the leaf, and not just on the underside, as is the case with other combretums. The silvery-green leaves are unusually small for a Combretum. Tall, upright tree with a rounded crown; bark is pale grey and splits ); hardekool (Afr. The leaves are eaten by kudu, impala, red lechwe, grey duiker, elephant, giraffe and the last two eat the branches as well. They become slightly darker, glossy, leathery and densely packed with age. The leaves are eaten as green vegetable. comm. Leadwood (Combretum imberbe) The 3,000-year-old tree A leadwood tree is certainly one of the most iconic trees, found in the Kruger National Park - the light grey bark with a “little blocks” appearance stands out from all the other trees. These plants were selected based on low minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging 0.02–2.5mg/mL (Masoko et al., 2005, 2006) and low LC 50 values rang-ing 75.7–168.6 μg/mL (Masoko, 2006). … 540. The study was conducted to investigate the antibacterial activities of stem and leaves from Terminalia sericea and the live and dead bark from Combretum imberbe. Everyone's guide to trees of South Africa . Cases where the taxon is native, naturalised, possibly planted or definitely planted are all listed. Combretum kraussii. Acetone extract of leaves of C. nelsonii, C. albopunctactum, C. imberbe and T. sericea possessed remarkable growth inhibitory activities against fungal pathogens. The wood is extremely hard and heavy and takes a long time to decay, making this The wood is very hard and tough, and burns very slowly with intense heat. Combretum imberbe Wawra LC; Combretum kraussii Hochst. Leadwood refers to the high density of the wood. Leaves elliptic to obovate, often on short, spine-like lateral shoots, grey-green above, hairless, but covered in whitish scales beneath. Combretum imberbe Wawra, Combretum nelsonii Duemmer, Combretum albopunctatum Suesseng, and Terminalia sericea Burch ex DC. The flowers can also be used as a cough mixture. Combretum imberbe. All 3 may be occur on the same tree. Average Dried Weight: 76 lbs/ft 3 (1220 kg/m 3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC):.96, 1.22. Combretum imberbe: Research and gaps DWAF contact # 2003-089 5 Namibia the Hereros and Ovambos attach special cultural and religious significance to the tree (Carr 1988). It has a spreading canopy and is extremely slow growing. This question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions. Not registered yet? Combretum imberbe Wawra; Combretum imberbe Wawra is an accepted name This name is the accepted name of a species in the genus Combretum (family Combretaceae). Combretum imberbe is a hardy, slow growing, bulky, deciduous tree which can grow to tremendous old age. The leadwood is fairly drought resistant, but could be damaged by frost.Combretum imberbe will grow in most well-drained gardens and is quick growing from seeds, under favourable conditions. The fruit is 4-winged, yellowish-green and covered wiht silvery scales. Young leaves are soft and hairy, rounded with broadly tapering tips and bases. A guide to useful plants of southern Africa. Its fine texture produces a gentle abrasive that is very effective in removing any unwanted build-up of plaque. RSA Tree No. The older leaves are typically larger, bigger than those of any other species of Combretum; they are approximately about 80 mm long and 40 mm wide. The tree has special cultural and religious importance to the Ovambo people of Nambia. The silvery-green leaves are unusually small for a Combretum. STATUS OF COMBRETUM IMBERBE LEVEL OF PROTECTION Combretum imberbe is currently not a protected tree in South Africa, although it has been proposed for listing on the protected tree list of South Africa (T. Stehle pers. See the articles Wood Allergies and Toxicity and Wood Dust Safety for more information. Palmer, E. & Pitman, N. 1972. Briza Publications, Pretoria . Leadwood Tree or Ivory Tree, Combretum imberbe, is a tropical, slow-growing, deciduous tree of about 21 m tall. The flowers are yellowish-green in loose spikes and with four wings. Scientific Name: Combretum imberbe. 8 likes. The bark is rough and cracks vertically into a netted pattern (reticulate). Combretum. New soft, hairy leaves may be whitish or are light green. In the RSA, there are 5 genera and 41 species. Combretum imberbe Wawra Ecology. Leadwood is known for its hard and heavy wood, which is sometimes used for interior decoration purposes. Seeds that have not been parasitized should be removed carefully from the fruit, so that the seeds are not damaged, it is therefore preferable to select healthy looking fruits, soak them for a few hours and then plant in seedling trays filled with river sand. The snakeskin-like bark is one of the main features that make identification easier throughout the season. Its bark cracks in rectangular flakes and the young branches and twigs have hard spines. Login to add your Comment Combretum imberbe is a deciduous shrub or tree with a spreading crown, most commonly 6 - 10 metres tall, though it can also often be found up to 20 metres tall, with reports of some trees reaching 30 metres. Acetone extracts of leaves and isolated compound demonstrated wound healing properties comparable with that of antibiotic powder (amphotericin B). Highveld & Drakensburg. Coates Palgrave, K., Coates Palgrave, P. & Coates Palgrave, M. 1985. Thomas, V. & Grant, R. 1998. It is a long-lived tree (up to 1000 years) and even after it dies, the Leadwood stays impressive with its pale trunk and soaring branches. Young leaves are soft and hairy, rounded with broadly tapering tips and bases. The leaves are hairless and grey-green. A combination of roots and leaves are taken against bilharzia. Trees of southern Africa . Conservation Press, Johannesburg . Combretum means climbing plant in Latin according to Pliny, and the common name leadwood refers to the heaviness of the wood. Combretaceae, A. W. Exell. Combretum imberbe is a hardy, slow growing, bulky, deciduous tree which can grow to tremendous old age. 3 mm., densely silvery- or rufous-lepidote, otherwise glabrous or nearly so; upper receptacle little developed, almost flat when the flowers are mature, densely silvery- or rufous-lepidote, otherwise glabrous or nearly so. Plant Description: Combretum imberbe is the most impressive of our combretums; even when dead, leadwood presents an imposing display.. Combretum imberbe is the tallest of all the South African combretums. The pale green flowers are borne on anxillary spikes. Ajna Fern Akad. Under this In Latin the word combretum translates as a climbing plant, and imberbe means lack of hair, so the … Family: Combretaceae. Did you know that the ash from the burnt bark of the leadwood (Combretum imberbe) tree has been used for centuries as a toothpaste? Petioles sometimes persisting after leaf-fall, forming thorns. Carr, J.D. The presence of leadwood in some areas can indicate to farmers that the grazing is good. Flora Zambesiaca 4. Jacana, Johannesburg. Growing Combretum imberbe. The deciduous simple Leaves are hairless. Tree Size: 32-64 ft (10-20 m) tall, 1-2 ft (.3-.6 m) trunk diameter. Specimen: K000226544 Family: Combretaceae: Type Status: holotype: Current Name: Combretum imberbe Wawra: Phenology: Collector: Kirk, J. 1988. Struik, Cape Town . The results of this laboratory animal study indicate that MAG possesses analgesic and antiinflammatory effects in the mammalian models used. Combretum imberbe is a characteristic and often impressive bushwillow species of the southern Afrotropics. It has grey-green simple leaves about 6cm long that are arranged alternately along the stems. The colour of the trunk is pale grey to white. The simple, oblong leaves are arranged oppositely and silvery grey in colour with red scales. Small, regular, 4-merous, actinomorphic, creamy white Flowers develop in spikes. It is a long-lived tree (up to 1000 years) and even after it dies, the Leadwood stays impressive with its pale trunk and soaring branches. Leaves Leaves opposite, verticillate or rarely alternate, usually petiolate (rarely subsessile), almost always entire; petiole sometimes persisting (especially in climbers) forming a ± hooked spine. The leaves are slightly lighter below and are found on short lateral branches. The older leaves are typically larger, bigger than those of any other species of Combretum; they are approximately about 80 mm long and 40 mm wide. The small, white, puffball flowers, borne from September to March, are very fragrant and … Venter, F. & Venter, J. Description. LC; Combretum nelsonii Dummer LC; Combretum padoides Engl. Keith Coates Palgrave Trees of southern Africa, edn 3. The inconspicuous pale green flowers form spikes, … The snakeskin-like bark is one of the main features that make identification easier throughout the season. BioCentre Klein Flottbek, Hamburg, Germany, R. Revermann; Photo Guide to Plants of Southern African plants. Johnson, D. & Johnson, S. 1993. Leadwood (Combretum imberbe) The 3,000-year-old tree. This deciduous tree has Leaves that are opposite, alternate or 3-whorled. Specimen: K000450440 Family: Combretaceae: Type Status: Current Name: Combretum imberbe Wawra: Phenology: Collector: Crawford, F. Plant Parts: Leaves, Stem(s) Combretum imberbe (leadwood, hardekool) has been used for medicinal purpose and several studies have been carried out to investigate the chemical compounds present in the bark of this plant. Edible 4-winged Fruit is a samara that turns red for a time and has 1 wrinkled Seed. While most of the species in the combretum family are small to medium sized trees or shrubs, the Leadwood is one of the largest trees in Africa, capable of attaining a height of 20 meters. Esterhuyse, N. 2001. RSA Tree No. Leadwood Tree or Ivory Tree, Combretum imberbe, is a tropical, slow-growing, deciduous tree of about 21 m tall. It is, in fact, a fairly common sight at Singita’s South African properties (albeit with more blue sky!