MAIZE RUST. Title: Ethiopian maize diseases recognition and classification using support vector machine Authors: Enquhone Alehegn. Pests of maize. The study identified 137 individual pathogens and pests that attack the crops, with very large variation in the amount of crop loss they caused. Diseases. Common Names of Plant Diseases - Diseases of Corn or Maize...Gary P. Munkvold, collator (last update: 8/27/17) BACTERIAL DISEASES Bacterial leaf blight Pseudomonas avenae Manns subsp. Addresses: Department of Computer Science, Ethiopian Institute of Textile and Fashion Technology, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. Maize Diseases: A Guide for Field Identification 4th edition The CIMMYT Maize Program. Diseases in maize are caused by fungi, bacteria, viruses and nematodes. Acidovorax avenae (Manns) Willems et al. Plant disease, an impairment of the normal state of a plant that interrrupts or modifies its vital functions. Symptoms start with lesions usually noticed on the bottom leaves first, which then spread to upper leaves when spores are released. Abstract: Currently, more than 72 maize diseases found in Ethiopia that attacked different part of maize. They are found in fresh waters, polar regions, tropics, marine environment, etc. Infections of maize with phytopathogenic and toxinogenic Fusarium spp. THE FUTURE . Controlling weeds prevents occurrence of disease causing organisms in the farm. total losses due to pests in maize were estimated at 57 percentage, with insect pests being more important than diseases (Grisley, 1997). There are different traditional mechanisms to identify and classify maize leaf diseases by chemical analysis or visual observation. Learn more about the importance, transmission, diagnosis, and control of plant diseases. Top pests and diseases. Maize Weevil. Although there are hundreds of pests and many diseases that can affect coffee plants, some are more prevalent than others. This disease has devastated maize crops in the United States (US), Mexico, and East Africa. Along with these infections, mycotoxins are often produced and accumulated in affected tiss … Maize Figure 9: maize weevil. The environment must not have too much moisture which can cause root of the maize. Infectious, or biotic, diseases make up the bulk of variety of crop diseases. The 67 countries grow 84 percent of the global production of wheat, rice, maize, soybean and potato. Currently, more than 72 maize diseases found in Ethiopia that attacked different part of maize. Disease fungi take their energy from the plants on which they live. CIMMYT® ( is an internationally funded, not-for-profit organization that conducts research and training related to maize and wheat throughout the developing world. In Zimbabwe, grain damage of 92 percentage in stored maize was reported due to insect pests. Maize Diseases Recognition and Classification Using Image Processing: Alehegn, Enquhone: Libros Storage Pests Stored maize is susceptible to infestation by insect pests and attack by diseases and can also be damaged by rodents and birds. In It is the fourth most consumed cereal during the past two decades, after sorghum, millet and rice in Nigeria. Ribeyre’s report says that there are more than 900 species of insects, various other pests (including microscopic parasites, molluscs, birds, and mammals), and a large number of diseases that attack coffee crops. Examples of pests and diseases that attack maize are; • African army worm • Rodents • Maize weevil • Stalk borer • Birds Together with projected climatic changes, it is very likely that maize diseases will become more significant. This in consequence lead to more intense maize production in certain regions with narrowed maize rotations. SINCE 1856 The hatched larva bores thin tunnels beneath the seed coat leaving circular holes on the surface of the grain. Common diseases that affect maize include maize smut, ... Insects also cause damage to maize making it easier for the disease causing organisms to attack maize. Maize is the world’s highest supplier of calorie with caloric supply of about 19.5%. avenae Manns Bacterial leaf spot Xanthomonas campestris pv. Drawing on This can cause different types of diseases in vegetative and generative organs of the plant. Maize chlorotic mottle virus is not present in New Zealand. Keep flea beetle populations low through crop rotation and by maintaining high soil organic matter. Maize lethal necrosis disease. Removal of undesirable plants that might serve as a host reservoir for virus diseases that attack cultivated crops aid in preventing infection. 11. Plant diseases can be classified as infectious or noninfectious, depending on the causative agent. During the life cycle of maize, they are attacked by pests and diseases and end up destroyed. Infected rhizomes of Johnsongrass are the primary overwintering host for the maize dwarf mosaic virus that attacks … But, the traditional mechanisms have their own drawbacks take more time and require professional staff. subsp. They are responsible for a great deal of damage and are characterized by wilting, scabs, moldy … Maize produces high biomass yields and hence evolving as the main bioenergy plant, which further boosted its cultivation. Maize diseases can cut silage yields and feed quality if they are not controlled. The combined action of natural enemies (including predators of eggs, larvae and pupae, parasites of eggs and larvae, and caterpillar diseases) can have a significant impact. The storage environment must be free from pest. The more prevalent form is that caused by the warmth-loving fungus, Puccinia polysora. They may be helpful or destructive to a plant depending on the species. Due to the attack of several plant diseases caused by fungi, bacteria, viruses and possibly nematodes, yields are often reduced considerably. avenae Manns (syns. List of Plant Diseases Caused by Nematodes. Life Cycle of Maize. Maize (Zea mays, L.) is one of the main cereal crops of West Africa. On the occasion of a recent publication on Virus Research about how MLN was contained, we interviewed B.M. It provides more calorie than rice (16.5%) and wheat (15.0%). These tiny insects can transmit virus diseases. Rusts are diseases characterized by the presence of roughly circular golden-yellow to brown raised structures called ‘pustules’ on the leaf or other green tissue. Maize Figure 8: maize weevils on grains. Diseases of Corn or Maize (Zea mays L.) M. C. Shurtleff, D. I. Edwards, G. R. Noel, W. L. Pedersen, and D. G. White, primary collators (last update 4/3/93) BACTERIAL DISEASES (Also a spiroplasma) Bacterial leaf blight and stalk rot Pseudomonas avenae subsp. Diseases that attack maize Summary Powered by GitBook. It is one of the most important staple foods in the world today. Foliar diseases that establish prior to tasseling, ... Later, anthracnose can attack the stalks above the ear leaf leading to “top dieback,” or lower on the stalk soon after tasseling leading to reduced plant productivity and lodging. The most important maize leaf diseases for which the farmer should be on the lookout are combined in Table 1. These are caused by living organisms that infect the crop. Among the different stresses, biotic factors are the major constraints in the production and productivity of maize. Maize Field Guide Maize Crop Development, Pests and Diseases. Diseases are important constraints to maize production, wherever the crop is grown. LEAF DISEASES IN MAIZE In 2009, a severe attack of northern corn leaf blight (E. turcicum) developed and 50% yield increases were accom-plished from fungicide treatments in a number of trials. Severally infected leaves dry off. Prasanna, director of the Global Maize Program at CIMMYT and the CGIAR Research Program on Maize (MAIZE), to discuss the MLN success story, the global COVID-19 crisis, and the similarities in the challenge to tackle plant and human viral diseases. In Kenya, it caused crop losses of between 50% and 100%. Maize Diseases Recognition and Classification Using Image Processing: MAIZE DISEASES RECOGNITION AND CLASSIFICATION USING IMAGE PROCESSING: Alehegn, Enquhone: 9786200479242: Books - Plant Diseases. An attack of Fall Armyworm on several acres of maize grown in the district has rendered over 80 days of hard work and huge investments on farm inputs, a … Nematodes are tiny animals that are adapted to all types of ecosystems. It contains carbohydrates which are needed by both humans and animals for energy. Maize is a cereal crop. The attack starts in the field where the female lays eggs in a slight hollow on the maize seed. This leaf diseases on maize is a fungal disease that occurs in most of South Africa’s maize producing areas.