Príhoda, Antonín, Ladislav Urban & Vera Nicová: The following two tabs change content below. This region has been shown to be an important reserve of bioactive medicinal plants in which phytotherapy knowledge has been and remains to be very developed (Eddouks et al., 2002). 1). Joint pain. Some other biological activities of medically significant compounds isolated from Fraxinus species are as follows: diterpenes analogs from Fraxinus sieboldiana resulted in a prohibitory activity opposite to H5N1 avian influenza virus. In addition, its bioactive phytochemicals and secondary metabolites can be effectively used in cosmetic industry and as a competent antiaging agent. Partner, Advertising & Commercial Relationships. Zhang, Y.-J. Zou, S. Lin, J.-G. Shi, and H.-B. Natural products being enriched with variety of anticancer, antioxidant, and neuroprotective compounds have a great potential for drug discovery [3]. Various hallmarks underlie the establishment of tumor cells: substantiating angiogenesis, tissue invasion, disruption of apoptosis, limitless duplication potential, being unresponsive to antigrowth signals, metabolic reprogramming, and genomic imbalance [65]. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. Esculetin, esculin, fraxin, and fraxetin are some of the pharmacologically active components isolated from different species of Fraxinus plant (Figure 2). Free radicals have capability to interact with cellular components and thus causing DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, and protein injuries [77]. This review reveals that Fraxinus plant is a valuable drug candidate with its potential anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and neuroprotective properties. Administration of Fraxinus excelsior L. seed extract (FESE) orally at a daily dose of 20 mg/kg or 40 mg/kg body weight of animal in spontaneously hypertensive rats improved acetylcholine relaxation in aorta, decreased plasma and liver malondialdehyde levels, and increased plasma antioxidant capacity [95]. The northernmost location is in the Trondheimsfjord region of Norway. Toxoplasmosis, an intracellular parasitic protozoan infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii, is usually asymptomatic but has serious clinical manifestations in immunocompromised individuals [100]. Screening of methanolic leave extracts from Fraxinus floribunda in rats suggests its significant pain relieving effects in inflammatory conditions [60]. Kim, H.-Y. Several in vivo and in vitro studies have been executed to describe its medicinal properties and to investigate the mechanism of action. [39]. It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website. Among them, 49% of anticancer drugs belong to natural products [6, 7]. B. Saba, O. M. Onakoya, and A. It is also used as a tonic. Treatment of streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic rats by Fraxinus angustifolia leaf extract (25 and 50 mg/kg) resulting in considerable hypoglycemic effects with significant reduction in malondialdehyde levels in short interval of time providing a way for the treatment of diabetes [106]. Fraxinus excelsior (European Ash) Fraxinus excelsior (European Ash) is a splendid, large, deciduous tree with a straight trunk and a dense, rounded crown. Most of the plants that have high percentage of polyphenolic compounds have been widely used in cosmetics for their antiaging properties [102]. Protective hypotensive effects of Fraxinus excelsior extract were evaluated in spontaneously hypertensive and normotensive rats and oral administration of 20 mg/kg/day for about 3 weeks resulted in significant decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP) [96]. Add to Likebox #24730956 - a mature ash tree latin name fraxinus excelsior in a winter hedgerow . Mistletoe extract obtained from host tree Fraxinus showed cytotoxicity against various cancerous cells including chronic myeloid leukemia K562 cells, human multiple myeloma RPMI-8226 cells, and murine leukemia L1210 cells via JNK-1/2, caspase-9, and p38 MAPK activation, Mcl-1 downregulation, and inhibition of PKB and ERK-1/2 phosphorylation. The Emerald Ash Borer has caused widespread devastation of F. americana and F. pennsylvanica populations in North … Much remains to be discovered about MOA as a propitious therapeutic agent for inflammatory diseases [59]. Inhibition of myeloperoxidase (an enzyme released by triggered granulocytes and reported to produce harmful agent hypochlorous acid) by extracts from Fraxinus excelsior along with Populus tremula recommends its usage as anti-inflammatory drug [61]. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. R. Howes, N. S. L. Perry, and P. J. Houghton, “Plants with traditional uses and activities, relevant to the management of Alzheimer's disease and other cognitive disorders,”, S.-P. Thor Sturluson has a BS in Biology, majoring in Botany, from the University of Maine and a masters degree in Zoology from the Open University in London. 2017, Article ID 4269868, 12 pages, 2017., 1Department of Zoology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Government College University Faisalabad, Punjab 38000, Pakistan, 2Department of Zoology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Sargodha, Punjab 40100, Pakistan. Inflammation of the mouth and throat, when applied directly. Fraxinus excelsior Figure 1. Middle-aged Common Ash. Zhu, “Anti-apoptotic effect of esculin on dopamine-induced cytotoxicity in the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line,”, I. Lahmar, H. Belghith, F. Ben Abdallah, and K. Belghith, “Nutritional composition and phytochemical, antioxidative, and antifungal activities of Pergularia tomentosa L,”, A. Mohammadi, H. Nazari, S. Imani, and H. Amrollahi, “Antifungal activities and chemical composition of some medicinal plants,”, C. Y. Kwan, “Vascular effects of selected antihypertensive drugs derived from traditional medicinal herbs,”, N. López-Carreras, S. Fernández-Vallinas, M. Miguel, and A. Aleixandre, “Long-term effect of an aqueous Fraxinus excelsior L. seed extract in spontaneously hypertensive rats,”, M. Eddouks, M. Maghrani, N.-A. This potentially efficacious pharmacological drug candidate should be used for new drug discovery in future. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-gamma induced murine macrophage-like RAW 264.7 cells treatment by Fraxinus rhynchophylla extract showed an inhibition trend towards the amount of iNOS protein in dose-dependent manner suggesting its possible application as anti-inflammatory agent in autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases [74]. In vitro assessment of hydroxyframoside B isolated from ethanolic extract of stem bark of Fraxinus rhynchophylla provided an approach to decrease obesity via downregulating the pancreatic lipase activity thus restricting the absorption of lipid by pancreas [36]. Even today it is sometimes known as the 'Venus of the woods'. Fraxetin (one of the main constituents of Fraxinus rhynchophylla) inhibitory effects against Staphylococcus aureus proliferation were investigated by treatment of bacterial cultures with fraxetin at a concentration of 0.05 mg/ml. Tan, G. Li et al., “Development of a sensitive monoclonalantibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the antimalaria active ingredient artemisinin in the Chinese herb Artemisia annua L.,”, H. Sher, R. W. Bussmann, R. Hart, and H. J. Fraxinus excelsior is a deciduous Tree growing to 30 m (98ft) by 20 m (65ft) at a fast rate. Fraxinus plant has been accounted for its wide spectrum of biological activities including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, antioxidant, anticytotoxic, antiaging, antimicrobial, and antihypertensive (Figure 1). Liu, X. Chen, Z. Yang, M.-H. Zhu, and Y.-P. Li, “Pollution resistance assessment of existing landscape plants on Beijing streets based on air pollution tolerance index method,”, T. Younis, M. R. Khan, M. Sajid, M. Majid, Z. Zahra, and N. A. Shah, “Fraxinus xanthoxyloides leaves reduced the level of inflammatory mediators during in vitro and in vivo studies,”, I. Kostova and T. Iossifova, “Chemical components of Fraxinus species,”, C. Liang, W. Ju, S. Pei, Y. Tang, and Y. Xiao, “Pharmacological activities and synthesis of esculetin and its derivatives: a mini-review,”, K. Moulaoui, C. Caddeo, M. L. Manca et al., “Identification and nanoentrapment of polyphenolic phytocomplex from Fraxinus angustifolia: In vitro and in vivo wound healing potential,”, F. Montó, C. Arce, M. A. Noguera et al., “Action of an extract from the seeds of Fraxinus excelsior L. on metabolic disorders in hypertensive and obese animal models,”, N. Bai, K. He, A. Ibarra et al., “Iridoids from Fraxinus excelsior with adipocyte differentiation-inhibitory and PPAR, M. Maghrani, N.-A. It is hardy to zone (UK) 4 and is not frost tender. Various studies conducted by researchers have reported that natural products have anticancer [9, 10], antibacterial [11], antifungal [12], antiviral [13], antioxidant [14, 15], anthelmintic [16], and anti-inflammatory [17, 18] activities. He's an experienced Biologist with a history of working in the environmental services industry. A trained scuba diver and researcher, Thor's has a keen interest in nature conservation and animal/plant protection. Further studies are required with more microbial species to assemble data related to Fraxinus plant that can act as potential antimicrobial agent. Metabolites and extracts from this plant have been found to possess variety of biological activities such as anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, antiallergic, skin regenerating, and diuretic [28, 29]. Esculetin (coumarin) isolated from Fraxinus rhynchophylla notably meliorated CCl4 induced hepatic toxicity by downregulating the aspartate aminotransferase and serum alanine aminotransferase and via upregulation of GSH-Px, SOD, and CAT and thus prevented the pathological condition associated with tissue injury [43]. Similar Images . Antioxidants are substances that have ability to reduce the harmful effects of these free radicals. Fraxinus excelsior bark extract for its free radical scavenging activities and for tyrosinase elastase and collagenase prohibitory activities suggest its use in dermocosmetic industry [103]. F. rhynchophylla have remarkable inhibitory activity against neuronal cell damage induced by Abeta (25–35) by downregulating the activity and expression of caspase-3, reducing the cleaved PARP and DNA fragmentation with an effective concentration of 20 μM [90]. Fraxinus excelsior is also threatened by the Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis) which is found around Moscow in Russia and seems to be spreading westwards. Wound healing, when applied directly. From 1981–2014, out of the 1562 drugs being approved, 1211 were small molecule approved drugs that are new chemical entities, which are nonsynthetic and obtained from natural products. Glucevia, an effective Fraxinus excelsior herbal extract that competently balances fructosamine and blood glucose concentrations, significantly augmented adiponectin-leptin ratio in obese and overweight older rats via oral administration of Glucevia immediately after sugar rich meals [104, 105]. Fraxinus excelsior é uma espécie de árvores da família das Oleaceae, conhecida pelo nome comum de freixo. Click below on a thumbnail map or name for species profiles. In vitro evaluations of antitoxoplasma activity of oleuropein and its metabolites isolated from Fraxinus rhynchophylla showed a good efficacy and higher selectivity as an anti-T. gondii compound. Researchers have described a variety of bioactive compounds found in natural substances that play vital roles in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases caused due to vasodilation and hypertension [94]. The searched literature highlights recent advances and scientific literature were checked through different sites, Elsevier ScienceDirect and PubMed, and relevant medical journals. Chemical constituents of Fraxinus plant include various secoiridoids, phenylethanoids, flavonoids, coumarins, and lignans; therefore, it is considered as a plant with versatile biological and pharmacological activities. Anti-inflammatory drugs work by inhibition of enzymes COX-1 and COX-2 thus downregulating the production of prostaglandins. The bark and leaf are used to make medicine. Additionally, macromolecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins are decreased to 33.86, 48.96, and 55.74% [85]. All Rights Reserved! Fraxinus excelsior L. – European ash Subordinate Taxa. Regulatory circuits and molecular machineries that govern cellular function and fate are mainly disrupted by oncogenic mutations, conferring tumor cells towards various traits that assist their malignant behavior. Medicinal Plant Common Ash. Park, J.-S. Min, U. Chae et al., “Anti-inflammatory effect of oleuropein on microglia through regulation of Drp1-dependent mitochondrial fission,”, L. Wu, X. Li, H. Wu et al., “5-Methoxyl aesculetin abrogates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation by suppressing MAPK and AP-1 pathways in RAW 264.7 cells,”, S. Lingadurai, L. K. Nath, P. K. Kar, S. E. Besra, and R. V. Joseph, “Anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of methanolic extract of the leaves of Fraxinus floribunda wallich,”, S. Von Kruedener, W. Schneider, and E. F. Elstner, “Effects of extracts from, T. Rabi and A. Bishayee, “Terpenoids and breast cancer chemoprevention,”, P. Singh, N. Ngcoya, and V. Kumar, “A review of the recent developments in synthetic anti-breast cancer agents,”, A. R. Ferreira, J. Felgueiras, and M. Fardilha, “Signaling pathways in anchoring junctions of epithelial cells: Cell-to-cell and cell-to-extracellular matrix interactions,”, F. G. Giancotti, “Deregulation of cell signaling in cancer,”, A. Rasul, R. Bao, M. Malhi et al., “Induction of apoptosis by costunolide in bladder cancer cells is mediated through ROS generation and mitochondrial dysfunction,”, A. Rasul, B.-J. People take ash for fever, arthritis, gout, constipation, fluid retention, and bladder problems. Moreover esculin isolated from Fraxinus sieboldiana blume has neuroprotective properties on cytotoxicity stimulated by dopamine in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line via downregulating the GSH levels, upregulating the SOD activity, inhibiting the apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), the discharge of cytochrome c and the expression of activated caspase 3, and regulating the Bax, Bcl-2, and p53 proteins [91]. The fruits of the fraxinus excelsior tree, called ash keys, have also been traditionally used by practitioners of herbal medicine for stomach disorders and indigestion. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series related to COVID-19. Bark Of The Ash. Fraxetin mediated induction of HO-1 has potential to enhance the detoxification of free radicals. Fraxinus plant extracts can serve as template for new drug design and synthesis of new compounds for various human diseases treatments. But opting out of some of these cookies may affect your browsing experience. Researchers have described a wide variety of plant extracts that have hepatoprotective activities usually associated with antioxidant activity as excessive production of free radicals overpowers the natural protective system causing hepatic damage [78–80]. Kim, H.-O. Mechanism of action of Fraxinus plant is mainly associated with the upregulation of various antioxidant enzymes (Figure 3). Evaluation of methanolic extracts from Fraxinus floribunda in rats at a dose concentration of 400 mg/kg/oral reveals its significant antinociceptive properties and its potential for relieving pain in pathological conditions such as inflammation [60]. #62228336 - Ash tree (Fraxinus excelsior) lane along an old curved country.. The leaves of the fraxinus excelsior tree have a reportedly diuretic and purgative effect. In vitro studies to check the effects of lipo and hydrophilic extract from the bark of Fraxinus excelsior on the growth of asexual stages of Plasmodium falciparum suggest that it has significant inhibitory effects on the development of asexual stages of Plasmodium falciparum [99]. Tuberculosis. He, Y. Lv, and G.-H. Du, “Esculin improves dyslipidemia, inflammation and renal damage in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats,”, P. T. Thuong, Y. R. Pokharel, M. Y. Lee et al., “Dual anti-oxidative effects of fraxetin isolated from Fraxinus rhinchophylla,”, K. Xiao, Q.-H. Song, S.-W. Zhang, and L.-J. Stem bark, root bark, and leave extract of this plant have wide applications in traditional folk medicines since ancient times.Fraxinus plant derivative analogs along with pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics may also strengthen future ad… A Fraxinus excelsior L. seeds/fruits extract benefits glucose homeostasis and adiposity related markers in elderly overweight/obese subjects: A longitudinal, randomized, crossover, double-blind, placebo-controlled nutritional intervention study. Noteworthy Characteristics. Add to Likebox #62052850 - common ash tree isolated on white background. A novel compound fraxetin isolated from Fraxinus rhynchophylla showed dual antioxidative functions against metal and free radicals induced low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation. GOUT SYMPTOM RELIEF- ammonium phosphoricum, belladonna, colchicum autumnale, formicum acidum, fraxinus excelsior, ledum palustre, natrum carbonicum, nux vomica, urtica urens liquid If this SPL contains inactivated NDCs listed by the FDA initiated compliance action, they will be specified as such. The foliage of compound pinnate, dark green leaves contains 7-11 leaflets which turn rich shades of yellow in the fall. Various in vitro and in vivo studies results have demonstrated its several applications in biological systems. Kidney stones. Stimulation of intrinsic caspase pathway and downregulation of cellular GSH in K562 lead to induction of apoptosis [56]. His work and botany passion has made The Herbal Resource what it is. These cookies do not store any personal information. Aggregated data have revealed a variety of bioactive medicinal components from different species of Fraxinus plant that exhibit various biological activities (Table 1). We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible. The names found have these generic epithets: Fraxinus; species epithets begin with: E; The results can also be downloaded as a CSV file (Unicode UTF-8 encoding).. See … Iqra Sarfraz, Azhar Rasul, Farhat Jabeen, Tahira Younis, Muhammad Kashif Zahoor, Muhammad Arshad, Muhammad Ali, "Fraxinus: A Plant with Versatile Pharmacological and Biological Activities", Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. Data concerning many perspectives of the genus Fraxinus such as mechanism of action, phytochemistry (detail of bioactive components), and clinical trials employing scientific technologies is still very restricted which demand for supplementary studies peculiarly in humans. Fraxinus excelsior L. seed extract was obtained by an industrial process (FraxiPure™, batch # 347/53/A7; reference # 149251, Naturex SA, Site d’Agroparc BP 1218, 84911 Avignon Cedex 9, France) according to the traditional method used in Morocco (Eddouks and Maghrani, 2004, Maghrani et al., 2004, Eddouks et al., 2005). Native to Europe. Exogenous antioxidants primarily include natural as well as synthetic compounds having radical scavenging abilities. Even though inflammatory response varies among different diseases, principally diseased condition is linked with the production of prostaglandins which are formed from arachidonate by the action of cyclooxygenase (COX) isoenzymes. Herbal medicines such as STW 1 (Phytodolor) with an active component obtained from Fraxinus excelsior are an acceptable substitute to COX-2-inhibitors such as rofecoxib and NSAIDs [73]. The antifungal activity against Schizosaccharomyces octosporus and Candida albicans cultures with inhibitory concentration value ranging from 62.5 to 1000 μg/mL shows that Fraxinus pennsylvanicca plant extract exhibits notable antifungal activity [84]. The have been used as a laxative, making a mild substitute for senna pods. Scientists have demonstrated a variety of chemical compounds from plants, notably the secondary phytochemicals known to exhibit antimicrobial activity and which are effective against multidrug resistance microorganisms. A magas kőris (Fraxinus excelsior) – amint ezt neve (excelsior, vagyis kimagasló) is mutatja – az olajfafélék családjának legmagasabbra növő faja Elterjedése, élőhelye. Fraxinus excelsior. It is also used as a tonic. The molecular mechanism and exact protein targets of potent bioactive molecules from Fraxinus plant also deserve to be further investigated. Scientists have described antiplasmodium potential from variety of plant extracts [98]. Other conditions. This review reveals thatFraxinus plant is a valuable drug candidate with its potential anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and neuroprotective properties. Ku et al., “Syringin from stem bark of fraxinus rhynchophylla protects a, D.-L. Zhao, L.-B. European Ash (Fraxinus excelsior) – Illustration St. Hildegard of Bingen (1098 – 1179), a German writer, composer and philosopher, writes of using ash as a treatment for gout and rheumatism.