Bark, Rocks, Soil. Usnea filipendula is a species that grows in the north of the UK. Slow. The foliose (leaf-like) lichens are the most common types that grow on the trunks of trees or on rocks in the shady woods. A lichen can literally eat stones, survive severe cold, and remain dormant for long periods without harm. 294344) and in Scotland (No. Foliose. The stalks arise from the base and fork repeatedly. Help us get 50 million trees in the ground. Reindeer lichens, belonging to the genus Cladonia, have a sponge-like appearance. But the impacts of past sulphur-dioxide pollution and continued nitrogen air pollution from agriculture have resulted in their loss. The word "fruticose" is a technical term meaning "shrubby" and has nothing to do with fruit. Difference between foliose and fruticose lichens. The word "foliose" means leafy. Reindeer lichen is a light-colored, fruticose lichen belonging to the family C Close-up of Fruticose form lichen growing on a tree branch in spring, southern England, UK. Beard lichens once occurred on trees throughout the UK. Registered in England No. Very recently, it was proved that lichen is an organism consisting of a fungus and an alga. Rank: Genus Scientific Name : Cladonia cristatell a – The generic name is from the Greek word kladon which means “sprout” in reference to the characteristic vegetative shrub-like appearance of the fungal body. Lichen also has importance in â¦ Scientific name: Usnea. Biologists consider lichens to be fungi and the scientific name of the lichen is also the name of the mycobiont. The thallus is covered with mealy particles (soredia) produced by laminal soralia. Identity of the mycobiont and photobiont •There are about 13,500 lichen species reported world wide •The scientific name of a lichen species is the name of the Funga l partner (mycobiont) •Most mycobionts are Ascomycetes, although about twenty lichenized Basidiomycetes are known •The photobiont (the alga or cyanobacterial partner which carryout The life forms are composed of a fungus (kingdom Fungi) and most often a green alga (kingdom Protoctista) and/or a cyanobacterium (kingdom Monera). It fuelled our ancestors and still houses thousands. Usnea looks very similar to the epiphytic flowering plant known as Spanish moss (which is neither a moss nor a lichen!). Part of a web introduction to lichens. In the study of lichens, the name and classification belongs to the fungal partner, which in most cases is the dominant member of the association, at least in terms of biomass. The scientific name Cladonia cristatella actually is the name of the fungus. VAT No. Email me at this address if my answer is selected or commented on: Email me if my answer is selected or commented on. The list is provided and maintained by the British Lichen Society and is based upon the. A non-profit-making company limited by guarantee. Crustose lichens can often be found tightly embedded on tree, tree limbs and twigs, and on rocks. The word "fruticose" is a technical term meaning "shrubby," and many fruticose lichens, such as the one at the right, do indeed look like miniature shrubs an inch or so high. Introductory Key 1) Thallus fruticoseâ¦Key 1 1) Thallus folioseâ¦ 2 2) Thallus yellow or orangeâ¦ Key 2 2) Thallus green, gray, brown, or blackâ¦ Key 3 Key 1- Fruticose 1) Thallus yellow to orangeâ¦ This is the currently accepted name for use by the BLS Databases and on the latest versions of mapping cards; likewise, the NBN Gateway, although more recent name changes may take a year or two to be recognized by that facility. Aka strap or cartilage lichens. The thallus is attached to the substratum only at the base by a flattened disc. Lichens are interesting organisms. Buellia stillingiana . The thallus is attached to the substratum only at … The composite body of a lichen is called a thallus (plural thalli); the body is anchored to its substrate by hairlike growths called rhizines.There are three main lichen body types: crustose, fruticose, and foliose. Lichens play an important role in the ecology of woodlands. Three growth forms of lichens. Autumn leaf identification quiz: can you identify these 10 trees? Lichens are beautiful, especially when you view a lichen-drenched Douglas-fir or a colorful crust-covered cliff, and up close when viewed under a hand-lens or microscope. Bold (1957) had given the name Mycophycophyta, a name which represents the dual nature of the organisms. tubulosa with Bryoria sp. Lichens are interesting organisms. Foliose lichen is believed to have a wide range of uses since long time. The thallus of crustose lichen is flat, thin and of insignificant size. alga (around 85% of all lichen species), a cyanobacterium (around 10%), or both (about 5% of lichens). Foliose lichens â these form leaf like lobes. Fruticose lichens â â¦ Many foliose lichens have flat, frilly sections. The crustose lichens are sometimes called microlichens. Field Oriented keys to the Florida lichens: These keys are focused on the macrolichens with a few easily distinguished crustose Genera. Ried (1960b) indicated that crustaceous lichens are comparable in this respect to noncrustaceous forms. Crustose lichens consist of about 75 percent of all lichens on earth. The foliose appear flattened or leafy, and the crustose, as the name implies, are crusty. Iceland moss is fruticose or shrub-like bushy lichen with a small to medium brown thallus growing loosely on the soil. Lichens are found on every continent and are the dominant organisms on around 8% of the world’s land surface. This species typically lacks apothecia. Foliose lichen common on rock seeps. GB520 6111 04. The general structure of a lichen is composed of layers of fungus and alga. Registered office: Kempton Way, Grantham, Lincolnshire, NG31 6LL. Another fossil interpreted as a foliose or squamulose lichen thallus from the Lower Cretaceous of British Columbia, Canada is Honeggeriella complexa (Matsunaga et al., 2013). The surface of the thallus is divided into hexagonal areas called areolae. Lichens also provide many other ecosystem services such as carbon cycling and water retention. A fruticose lichen (Cladonia peziziformis) The foliose and fruticose lichens are called macrolichens because they are generally easy to see without magnification. Not to be confused with: similar looking lichens growing on trees, including the horsehair lichens, Bryoria and Alectoria species. Three places that lichens grow. Beard lichens are intolerant of air pollution so only grow in woodlands with clear air. The algae or cyanobacteria has its own, unique, scientific name (binomial name). How long do trees live? Warning: If you're looking for the full classification hierarchy for every lichen, this page is not for you. They play an important role in our natural ecosystems and can let us know when those ecosystems are in trouble. Wikipedia. Beard lichens are known as fruticose lichens, which grow like mini shrubs or tassels anchored onto the bark of tree trunks and branches. Beard lichens have also been used to make cosmetics, preservatives and deodorants. A lichen is a composite organism that arises from algae or cyanobacteria living among filaments of multiple fungi species in a mutualistic relationship. You'll find Usnea florida on old tree trunks in southern and southwest England, Wales and the Welsh Marches, northern England and Scotland. Some people also spot the crustose lichen, which have a peeling paint like surface. Fruticose lichen definition | Fruticose lichen scientific name | Where does fruticose lichen grow? Privacy: Your email address will only be used for sending these notifications. They often look like tufts of odd-shaped and odd-colored lettuce growing on a branch or rock. In general, however, lichens have little medical value. By convention, lichens have the same scientific name as the fungus in them, and are not classified according to the species of the algae and/or cyanobacteria growing in them. But trees rely on fungi and we're just starting to understand how close this relationship is: great networks that link and support trees and woodland life. They are diverse, adaptable, functional, and little understood. Common name(s): beard lichen, old man’s beard, string of sausages lichen, Scientific name: Usnea species (including Usnea articulata, U. ceratina, U. cornuta, U. filipendula, U. florida, U. rubicunda, U. subfloridana), Habitat: tree trunks, branches and twigs often high in the canopy. It's effective against bacteria including Streptococcus, Staphylococcus and tuberculosis. Lichens reproduce in a number of ways. lichens don't look at all like fruits. Habitat: Substrate and preferences (if any). A few lichens to get to know. Fruticose lichens have no distinct top and bottom and are often round in cross-section. Cladonia cryptochlorophaea, a fruticose lichen from the Brooks Range of northern Alaska. Crustose lichen growing on rock. A word of warning. There are three major types of lichen â crustose, foliose, and fructicose â each of which has its own shape, structure, and environmental preferences. The branches are cylindrical, slender and ribbon-like. How old before they're ancient? Beard lichens are known as fruticose lichens, which grow like mini shrubs or tassels anchored onto the bark of tree trunks and branches. The term fruticose is used to refer as shrubby in technical terms. Lichens on trees provide valuable microhabitats, shelter and food for various small invertebrates. , There are about 20,000 known lichen species. This shrub-like growth form is the most highly developed and plant-like of the four forms, and some species of fruticose lichen can be difficult to tell apart from plants. They are diverse, adaptable, functional, and little understood. Woodland Trust (Enterprises) Limited, registered in England (No. Later on Smith (1955) and some other workers opined that lichens should be treated as a distinct group. Today lichen components are used in deodorants as well as perfumes because of their pleasing aroma. All Maryland lichens are in the Division Ascomycota . The thallus is complex, conspicuous and much branched. However, the variety of appearances ranges widely. There are in or about 20,000 known species of lichens. The branches are cylindrical, slender and ribbon-like. Facts about Lichen 1: the microlichen and macrolichen. The genus is in the family Parmeliaceae. ex Adans. Differentiating lichens from other groups of plants The non-lichenized fungi, algae, moss, liverworts (bryophytes) are the plants, which grow on rocks, bark and on soil and can be confused for lichens to the beginners. Reproductive Structures: Flavoparmelia caperata, a common foliose lichen that grows on limbs of shrubs in the coastal sage scrub and chaparral of San Diego County. Scientific Name: Cladonia rangiferina â The generic name is from the Greek kladon which means âsproutâ to signify the shrub-like appearance of the branching segments of the lichen. Common Name: Methuselahâs beard, beard lichen Scientific Name: Usnea longissima Ach. The branches are cylindrical, slender and ribbon-like. Lichens that are leaf-like in appearance. There are many symbiotic Types of mushroom in the UK: common identification guide, Top tips for an eco-friendly and sustainable Christmas, Staying safe in our woods during the pandemic. You can see lichen in lots of places - with little blazes of colour cropping up on rocks, walls, twigs, bark and even on exposed soil surfaces. Dripping off the trees in clean-air woodlands, these bushy beard lichens adorn the branches and trunks and are some of our most conspicuous and beautiful lichens. To avoid this verification in future, please. The most widespread species occurring on twigs and branches is called Usnea subfloridana, and this has been recolonising woods and trees in the London and Midlands areas. Lichen Names - Supplementary notes for the Taxon Dictionary Current Taxon Name. Where do lichens live? The specimen on the left is approximately the size of a softball and was collected in the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas. Habitat: Substrate and preferences (if any). SC038885). At any given time, anyone attempting to classify lichens can use only those features that the available technology reveals. Fruticose is not at all similar to fruits in anyway. The thallus is complex, conspicuous and much branched. The thallus is usually grey-green and consists of a single main stalk or many. It grows erect or pendant attached by a holdfast at the base only to the substratum (branches of trees). Their thalli may be upright, shrubby, or of pendulous strands. 3 main types of lichens exist in Antarctica: Crustose lichens â these form a thin crust on the surface of the substrate they grow on. Fruticose lichens are typically the most glamorous and showy. Lichens on trees provide important micro-habitats, shelter and food for various small invertebrates. Schwendener’s hypothesis tried to prove that lichen is not a single organism, but a combination of t… Magical and mistrusted. Lichens do not have a scientific name because they are not a single organism. In Usnea, the fungus belongs to the division Ascomycota, while the alga is a member of the division Chlorophyta. Fruticose lichens, which usually arise from a primary thallus of a different growth form (i.e., crustose, foliose), may be shrubby or pendulous or consist of upright stalks. The Woodland Trust and Woodland Trust Nature Detectives logos are registered trademarks. Lichens are edible â well sort of. Beard lichens are also known as ‘fruticose’ lichens, and they grow like mini shrubs or tassels on the bark of tree trunks and branches. The one in the picture is on a twig, and the lichen is 3/4-inch tall (2 cm). Crustose lichen is more like a flat crust on a surface or beneath the rock surface or trees. Lichen fungi have evolved independently several times within the mushroom-forming fungi and relatives (the basidiomycetes), but much more commonly, from within the cup fungi (the ascomycetes). A versatile lichen of economic importance is Cetraria islandica, commonly called Iceland moss and sometimes used either as an appetite stimulant or as a foodstuff in reducing diets; it has also been mixed with bread and has been used to treat diabetes, nephritis, and catarrh. Fungus - Fungus - Lichens: A lichen is an association between one or two fungus species and an alga or cyanobacterium (blue-green alga) that results in a form distinct from the symbionts. Beard lichens are known as fruticose lichens, which grow like mini shrubs or tassels anchored onto the bark of tree trunks and branches. They usually consist of a fungus and an algae. It is an example of a fruticose lichen with a cylindrical to ribbon-like, much branched thallus. Lichens are given the same scientific name (binomial name) as the fungus in them, which may cause some confusion. Classification of lichens is undergoing change as well. Lichens may have tiny, leafless branches (fruticose), flat leaf-like structures (foliose), flakes that lie on the surface like peeling paint (crustose), a powder-like a… It grows all over the world. Speed of growth of lichens. Buellia stillingiana . It grows erect or pendant attached by a holdfast at the base only to the substratum (branches of trees). Finally, as the name implies, crustose lichens have crust-like bodies. Lichens are a type of symbiotic organism made up of a plantlike partner and a fungus. Pseudevernia furfuracea is another fruticose lichen used in the perfume industry. In 1867, Simon Schwendener, the Swiss botanist revealed a dual theory on lichens, in which it was stated that the organism consist of alga or cyanobacteria and fungus and from there the true nature of lichen came into existence. They are all pale grey-green, and some produce striking disc-like fruit bodies. Plant Description. Scientific Name : Cladonia cristatell a â The generic name is from the Greek word kladon which means âsproutâ in reference to the characteristic vegetative shrub-like appearance of â¦ Reproductive Structures: It is true that in order to properly classify and identify a lichen with reasonable certainty, you might need to know all that scientific jargon above. It is just a crust and grows closely attached to the rocks or barks by its entire lower surface. The leafy or bushy lichens are included as a macrolichens. Lichens are remarkable compound organisms that are an excellent example of symbiotic relationships in nature. Home to myth and legend, where folk tales began. The thallus is attached to the substratum only at the base by a flattened disc. ... Reindeer moss, or Cladonia rangiferina, is a fruticose lichen that is a staple food of reindeer and caribou. The one in the picture is on a twig, and the lichen is 3/4-inch tall (2 cm). There are other types of lichens like foliose lichen which has a more leaf-like structure and appearance. Usnea articulata is also known as 'string of sausages lichen'. A symbiotic relationship is beneficial to both partners. The fruticose lichens are branched or tubed, and resemble mosses. They play an important role in our natural ecosystems and can let us know when those ecosystems are in trouble. Technical Description: Usnea longissima is pale greenish or silvery-yellowish-green, fruticose and The thallus is usually grey-green and consists of a single main stalk or many. This is the currently accepted name for use by the BLS Databases and on the latest versions of mapping cards; likewise, the NBN Gateway, although more recent name changes may take a year or two to be recognized by that facility. Lichens, or lichenised fungi, are organisms formed by the symbiosis of a fungus species and one or more other organism, usually an alga. Asexual reproduction occurs when lichens form either (a) patches (soralia) of granular, ; Like other lichens it is a symbiosis of a fungus and an alga. In some areas, it was used as a fire-starter as it's flammable when dry and crisp. Most are pale green or brownish-green. The word "fruticose" is a technical term meaning "shrubby," and many fruticose lichens, such as the one at the right, do indeed look like miniature shrubs an inch or so high. Not to be confused with: similar looking lichens growing on trees, including the horsehair lichens, Bryoria and Alectoria species. shield lichens). There were parts of bark and twigs inside, where the lichen was attached to the tree. The Woodland Trust is a charity registered in England and Wales (No. Everything in the lichen’s environment is absorbed into the lichen's structure. Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants. They are all pale grey-green, and some produce striking disc-like fruit bodies. ... Iâve discovered only one scientific report describing vitamin D presence in lichens. Compare the three main forms of lichens: crustose, foliose, and fruticose. They’re usually gray-green and form more or less circular colonies. Get the low-down on ancient trees and where to find them in the UK. Like beard lichens, these are intolerant of air pollution and Bryoria horsehair lichens have declined significantly over recent decades. ... Foliose, Fruticose. Ramalina lichen, green fruticose type with flattened, strap-like branches. The word "fruticose" is a technical term meaning "shrubby" and has nothing to do with fruit. A dazzling array of shapes, sizes and colours. Higher classification: Parmeliaceae. The quote above, found in âA Field Guide to California Lichensâ, was taken from the caption on a picture of one of my favourite group of lichens, the Cladonias, commonly called the pixie cup or trumpet lichens. You'll find Usnea ceratina growing mostly in the southwest of the UK. Lichens are beautiful, especially when you view a lichen-drenched Douglas-fir or a colorful crust-covered cliff, and up close when viewed under a hand-lens or microscope. Lichens are interesting organisms. The pendulous Usnea ceratina and U. articulata (shown here and known as string of sausages lichen) can be seen in the southwest of the UK. ID: Full description of characteristics (including chemical tests) helpful (or unique) in identifying the species shown. Fruticose. Fruticose lichen characteristics: Fruticose lichens have an erect shrub-like or filamentous morphology and can be approximately 10cm high. Experts often use … Beard lichens can be found throughout the UK and Ireland, especially in areas with clean air. The stalks arise from the base and fork repeatedly. Email me at this address if a comment is added after mine: Email me if a comment is added after mine. As different species of lichens have different colors, a wide variety of colored clothing was produced with the help of the lichens. Squamulose lichen has a scaly thallus with small and minute particles of squamules on it. Rather, the intent here is to give you some examples of the features or tools used in lichen identification and some general observations about lichen classification. Where to see lichen. Lichens that form a crustlike covering that is thin and tightly bound to the substrate are called crustose. Intermediate types include leprose and squamulose lichen, among others. Arkansas probably has about 300 kinds of lichens counting the foliose and fruticose types, but no one knows for sure how many crustose types there are. They play an important role in our natural ecosystems and can let us know when those ecosystems are in trouble. Fruticose lichens have an erect shrub-like or filamentous morphology and can be approximately 10cm high. They are less likely to be found than beard lichens across most of the UK, and horsehair lichens tend to be a bit finer, and often more brownish in colour. Several hundred years ago all that was available was the naked eye so features such as growth form, colour and substrate were used to differentiate lichens and by 1700 the concepts of genus and species were in use. Lichens come in many colors, sizes, and forms and are sometimes plant-like, but lichens are not plants. Lichen is derived from the Greek leichein which means “to lick,” probably in reference to the tongue-like structure of many lichens. It is not always easy to identify lichens to the species level. Fruticose lichens don't look at all like fruits. 2296645), is a wholly owned subsidiary of the Woodland Trust. They can also be hosts for other species of parasitic fungi. In many cases, you will have to be satisfied in recognizing the genus (the first word in the scientific name) or the group (e.g. Latin Name Family. A Current Taxon Name is not necessarily the most taxonomically correct, nor the most correct as regarding the Rules of the ‘Code’ [International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi and Plants, formerly International Code of Botanical Nomenclatu… Identity of the mycobiont and photobiont â¢There are about 13,500 lichen species reported world wide â¢The scientific name of a lichen species is the name of the Funga l partner (mycobiont) â¢Most mycobionts are Ascomycetes, although about twenty lichenized Basidiomycetes are known â¢The photobiont (the alga or cyanobacterial partner which carryout These in turn are prey for larger insects and birds. It includes accepted scientific names, BLS numbers and good synonymy. The fruticose lichens of smaller size usually grow erect while larger ones hang from the substratum with their growing point located at the tips. The lichen was used to fill the body cavity of Ancient Egyptian mummies. In the tundra region of the far north, the principle winter browse of reindeers is reindeer moss, the â¦ Examples: Graphis, Rhizocarpon, Haematomma etc. Fruticose is more li… Ancient woodland has grown and adapted with native wildlife, yet what remains only covers 2.5% of the UK. Lichen is derived from the Greek leichein which means âto lick,â probably in reference to the tongue-like structure of many lichens. Toadstools and mushrooms are associated with ancient taboos, dung, death and decomposition. ID: Full description of characteristics (including chemical tests) helpful (or unique) in identifying the species shown. Lichens can survive severe conditions because they can withstand drying. Some are orange or yellow. Fruticose lichens have an erect shrub-like or filamentous morphology and can be approximately 10cm high. Examples Closeup, on twig, isolated on white. The photobiont has a different name. The forms of lichens include the foliose one, which has flat leaves like structure, or even fruticose one, which has leafless branches. They are diverse, adaptable, functional, and little understood. Images © protected Woodland Trust. CRUSTOSE LICHENS. It's unknown whether the lichen was used as a preservative or to provide a pleasant scent. It is also said to be edible and contains a high level of vitamin C. Like many other lichens, beard lichens have also been used historically for dyes, to create orange, yellow, green, blue and purple textiles. Latin Name Family. Since the 1700s the development of tools or techniques such as optica… Crustose. The thallus does not show differentiation of upper and lower surfaces. Thin lichens that look almost like a layer of paint. What the scientific name of a lichen is based on. Lichens provide valuable ecosystem services such as carbon cycling and water retention. photosynthesis because they lack the green pigment chlorophyll Lichen is composed of two or more dissimilar organisms that form a mutually beneficial (symbiotic) relationship to produce a new vegetative body that is called a thallus. We want to make sure everyone in the UK has the chance to plant a tree. It was traditionally used to treat wounds; Native Americans used it as a compress to prevent infection and gangrene. The thallus is complex, conspicuous and much branched. Look closely at the branches and twigs of trees in old woodlands. The name is said to be derived from the red uniforms worn by British troops during the American revolution. Characteristics: Usnea is a genus of mostly pale grayish-green fruticose lichens that grow like leafless mini-shrubs or tassels anchored on bark or twigs. The fossil is a permineralized fragment of a heteromerous thallus slightly larger than a millimeter and approximately 260 μm thick. See Figure 3. Lichens do not have a waxy cuticle like plants have on their leaves, nor do they have vascular tissue such as xylem and phloem to move nutrients and water around their thalli as a plant does. It is an example of a fruticose lichen with a cylindrical to ribbon-like, much branched thallus. The bushy Usnea florida can be found in well-wooded parts of southern and southwest England, Wales and the Welsh Marches, and northern England and Scotland. Keep in touch with the nature you love without having to leave the house. Lichens rank among the least well known forms of life. Fruticose lichens are âshrubbyâ in growth form. Before the discovery of dyes, the lichen was used in making dyes for clothing. Kingdom: Fungi Division: Ascomycota Class: Ascomycetes Order: Lecanorales Family: Parmeliaceae Genus: Usnea Dill. Lichens have properties different from those of their component organisms. See Figure 2. 1982873. The lichenâs highly branched growth pattern known as fruticose is similar in appearance to moss. Find out about fungi and lichens, from ancient taboos to magic and medicine. Lichens get their water and nutrients from their surrounding environment via air and rain. Frequency: “Common or Uncommon” except as otherwise specified. Summarizing the existing data about water-retention ability of lichens, we can say that the saturated water content of most fruticose and foliose lichens lies between (130) 150â300% of the dry weight. The glamorous lichens are the fruticose (shrub-like) lichens that grow more or less like real plants. Different kinds of lichens have adapted to survive in some of the most extreme environments on Earth: across arctic tundra, hot dry deserts and rocky coasts. Notice the cuplike items at the end of many of the This shrub-like growth form is the most highly developed and plant-like of the four forms, and some species of fruticose lichen can be difficult to tell apart from plants. Nor will this page help you identify lichen specimens. But other species are typically found in different parts of the UK. Frequency: âCommon or Uncommonâ except as otherwise specified. They are all pale grey-green, and some produce striking disc-like fruit bodies. Fruticose lichens are typically the most glamorous and showy. Scientific Name and Common Name; Kingdom: Plantae – Plants Subkingdom: Tracheobionta – Vascular plants Superdivision: Spermatophyta – Seed plants Division: Magnoliophyta – … Usnea filipendula and U. hirta are the beard lichens that grow mostly in the north of the UK. , Lichens are fungi that have discovered agriculture. Usnea species have been used medicinally for over a thousand years. The copy is based upon the original version provided in 2003 by Janet Simkin, adapted to include all subsequent amendments. Zahlbruckner (1907, 1926) divided the lichens into following 3 sub-classes on the basis of their fungal partner: (A) Ascolichens. Cladonia species are classified as fruticose because of the upright structures called podetia that resemble miniature golf tees. Left: Lungwort (Lobaria pulmonaria), an interesting foliose lichen native to the Coast Ranges of northern California and Oregon.The raised areas on the thallus superficially resemble the saclike alveoli of a lung, hence the name "lungwort" (wort is an old English word for plant). All Maryland lichens are in the Division Ascomycota . Lichens are beautiful, especially when you view a lichen-drenched Douglas-fir or a colorful crust-covered cliff, and up close when viewed under a hand-lens or microscope. Not to be confused with: similar looking lichens growing on trees, including the horsehair lichens, Bryoria and Alectoria species.