You need to find a way that suits you. In this article, we explain the basic structure of a scientific paper and describe the information that should be included in each section. Use them in the topic sentence and throughout the section. You do not want to create a ‘Frankenarticle’: a collection of ideas and words from various authors does not always combine in a seamless manner. ), Describe participants (demographic, clinical condition, etc. Start by thinking about the content. Write a How-to Article in 6 Easy Steps If you’ve ever jotted down a recipe or shared do-it-yourself instructions with a friend, you already understand the basic structure of how-to writing. It... After putting the article in your own words, decide which parts of the article you want to discuss in your review. This time, you write in anticipation of an audience. It will appear in the left-hand box of the toolbar. The latter requirement is more challenging for those who work in applied science than for basic scientists. ‘The aim of this paper is to describe what we did’) or vague (e.g. How can you make it simple so that those who are not very smart can also understand what you are writing very quickly? Use our assignment structures and samples to find out how your peers approach their work, and what lecturers expect of you. Silyn-Roberts, H. (2013). Why this particular way? Start writing before the experiments are complete. Finally, provide the page numbers where the article can be found. ), Describe the intervention (if applicable), Describe data collection instruments and procedures, Report on data collection and recruitment (response rates, etc. The key to successful scientific writing is getting the structure of the paper right. The paper will ask the question, then answer it. With distance, you might be able to see the path more clearly to a better and improved article. Spelling mistakes, poor grammar and poor linking are not problems at this stage. Also, references to unpublished work, to documents in the grey literature (technical reports), or to any source that the reader will have difficulty finding or understanding should be avoided. There are some complications with co-authoring, beyond determining who did the most work. It can help you lay out the various levels of your argument and supporting points. You do not want to upset the editors by ignoring their requirements; after all, they determine whether your work is worth publishing. They do not know you and are responding to an anonymous piece of writing. An abstract is also required as part of a published paper; as such, its purpose is to attract the interest and inspire prospective readers. The key attributes are: (i) specificity; (ii) originality or novelty; and (iii) general relevance to a broad scientific community. Feel proud of yourself that these experts thought enough about your article to contribute to its improvement. It is therefore worthwhile not deleting all your files. ), Discuss the main results with reference to previous research, Discuss policy and practice implications of the results, Analyse the strengths and limitations of the study, The stated aim of the paper is tautological (e.g. Highlights the positive aspects and facts presented in the publication. case studies, surveys, observations, tests. There are online guides to editing and proofreading. 2. In the manuscript, this section contains the essential details for other scientists to replicate the experiments of the study and help the common readers to understand the study better. methods are described in the Results section), The manuscripts does not follow the journal’s instructions for authors, The paper much exceeds the maximum number of words allowed, The Introduction is an extensive review of the literature, Methods, interventions and instruments are not described in sufficient detail. A mixed abstract is a combination of the descriptive and informative models. While it may safely be assumed that the human genome is the same worldwide, whether the results of a local quality improvement project have wider relevance requires careful consideration and argument. If a project allows you to explore several distinct research questions, write several papers. What can you tell them through your article, what information can you share with them that will help them? This should include: It also helps to put the article aside for just a few days and then you can consider the recommendations with a clearer mind. The research methods used for collecting or generating data will influence the discoveries and, by extension, how you will interpret them and explain their contribution to general knowledge.The most basic methods for data collection are: Docherty M, Smith R. The case for structuring the discussion of scientific papers. Even the most seasoned scholars have had to deal with some rejections. Is it something that people are already looking an answer for? While it is neither necessary nor desirable to provide a full-blown review of the literature as a prelude to the study, it is helpful to situate the study within some larger field of enquiry. If that's not possible, include notes on your computer or a separate piece of paper. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. [PowerPoint slides]. Thinking through which style of title best represents your contribution to the academic field helps narrow your ideas down to the essential nub of your contention. What you write in an article may reflect a distillation of ideas or findings from your thesis but it needs to be written to reflect an alternate academic context and audience. (If not a part of the Discussion section). You can also download and complete an activity sheet (DOCX, 0.02 MB). Our step-by-step guide will take you through the process, from planning to writing and publishing. With so many websites providing academic help, you can easily find some solid paper examples as the background for your own work. You might find you move between outlining and generative writing. Research practices and approaches vary. (25 words). The Discussion section allows the most freedom. Free-writing and generative writing can be used in conjunction with other writing strategies. Many disciplines use a less formal structure for their publications. ), The results of a study may be illustrated visually through the use of tables and figures. You should expect to write several drafts as you refine your thoughts. Once you generate a general idea of the point of view of the author, start analyzing the main ideas of each paragraph. Novelty is not sufficient if there is no purpose or significance in relation to current scholarly writing. Title page 2. Your article needs to fulfill its own unique role within a discipline’s scholarly discourse. (2007). Your article will add to the academic discourse in a particular field. Understand the assignment. The “informative” style is best for helping you refine your thoughts on an article. When co-authoring, it is important that the person who did the most work is listed first, but this can depend on discipline. Search for other works by this author on: Department of Community Medicine, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland, How to Write and Publish Papers in the Medical Sciences, Publishing and Presenting Clinical Research, International Journal for Quality in Health Care vol. Provide relevant theoretical and technical background information, Briefly outline the content/purpose of the article, Description of the kind of data used (for example, participants, procedures), Explanation of what was done to collect the information e.g. Be patient. It includes a Monash University is a registered higher education provider under the TEQSA Act 2011. Routledge. You are proffering your contribution to the academic field, keeping in mind what is already being discussed by others. Scientific research articles provide a method for scientists to communicate with other scientists about the results of their research. Whichever style of article you write, you will need a good title, abstract, introduction and discussion/conclusion. Too many people can lead to too many ideas. Limit the number so that your article remains tightly focused. Ensure you allow plenty of time for writing your article. You can also go on to read the rest of the article to deepen your understanding of which best practices to follow while writing a captivating, yet informative title for your research paper. You must be careful at this stage to read and follow the journal's submission guidelines carefully. The thought of having your article rejected is tough, but keep in mind, it is not you they are rejecting. They are not necessarily remunerated for this role, so it is not surprising that sometimes the task of reviewing a potential article slips down their priority list. Those writing in disciplines that already have a clear report structure can use the formal structure to help with the sorting of information. Start with an introduction that mentions the article and a thesis for the review. A study does not necessarily have to break completely new ground, but it should extend previous knowledge in a useful way, or alternatively refute existing knowledge.