Arguably, these two concepts of selfhood remain within the frame of a debate in which the under- and the oversocialized views of the human being occupy the extreme points. They cannot discuss these questions merely as scientists; the principles for the statement and solution of such problems come from philosophy, not from science. Reflection Paper On Philosophy Of Education. Some individual contributors to these traditions have gained great renown in their own cultures. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! Some early Christian thinkers such as Tertullian wereof the view that any intrusion of secular philosophical reason into theological reflection was out of order. 183–7) insistence on the ‘two-in-one,’ on the relation to oneself as another, as the very precondition for thought. As ‘esprit général’ Montesquieu understands the collective patterns of thought and behavior of a community, which is in it influenced by geographical and historical factors. There is a body of knowledge, recognized as such under a generally accepted name, set down in textbooks and discussed in professional journals by practitioners. The French political scientist and sociologist Raymond Aron interprets the contradictions and ambivalence of L'Esprit des Loix as a result of a profound transition period of European thought, at the center of which is Montesquieu's work, in his book Les Etapes de la Pensée Sociologique (1967), the first chapter of which is on Montesquieu. Philosophical Reflection: The Importance of. Reflection on Philosophical Methodologies. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Section 4 shows how these analogies point to the possibilities of group and multiple selves. This historicism has expressed itself in two important movements in recent historiography of science: the aim to understand ‘science in context,’ and attempts to write histories of entities previously assumed to be transhistorical. Indeed, it is crucially important, for example, to understand that we cannot stimulate pupils to achieve a higher level of moral judgment (one form of rational progress) simply by imparting knowledge, or by using teaching methods based on practical experience and problem solving. In therelevant sense, consent transactions have a distinct structure: agentA consents to B’s φ-ing onA, under a certain description of φ-ing,whether or not the offer was initiated by B. The shift consisted partly in conscious attempts to bridge the gap between theory and practice, between philosophical reflection and the collection of facts about social life. II, 1, p. 94) It was therefore without being obsessed with one singular case, and being free of all aristocratic prejudice, that Alexis de Tocqueville set about penetrating the essence of democratic society; by combining ‘holism’ and ‘individualism,’ he posited a diagnosis along with a prognosis on modern society whose value and validity were only recognized much later. The other concerns the distinctive kinds of social relations into which only selves can enter. His political philosophy, despite his analytical distance, highly values those societies that seek a balance between the various interests of power and societal groups, and are able to create a structural equilibrium (‘équilibre’). For Hume, the state of nature was a hypothetical construct, incompatible with the precepts of empirical science. Second, it enlarged the definition of what could count as ‘science’ for the purposes of historical investigation by ruling out hindsight judgments about what was and was not legitimate by present standards (to the benefit of specialties such as the history of premodern science and of the human sciences). The power that science gives us over our environment, health, and lives can, as we all know, be either misused and misdirected, or used with good purpose and results. This involves the weighing of several alternatives and using specific standards to evaluate one’s actions. Moody-Adams, in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2001. Chinese, Indian, and Arab culture have similar intellectual traditions; here, too, a few individuals have become the famous exponents of those traditions (Collins 1998). Whereas their predecessors practiced anachronism openly and with conviction, on the view that past science must be understood by the lights of present science, most historians of science now writing insist upon some attempt to reconstruct the conceptual and cultural categories of historical actors. A man reflects philosophically when he is able to build on previous actions, events, or decisions. The success of the first part of this work was enough to establish his reputation; in 1838 he was elected to the Academy of Moral and Political Sciences and, three years later, he entered the Académie française. For an understanding of such connections, a recognition of the ‘general spirit’ of a nation is central. We believe that second language acquisition in the classroom is best fostered in positive affective conditions, where stress is facilitative, not debilitative, and where the atmosphere is nurturing yet challenging and motivating. Regarding the former, Hume said little more than that sensation “arises in the soul originally from unknown causes.” Impressions of reflection arise from a complicated series of mental operations. In a kindred spirit, the Scottish moral philosopher David Hume proposed introducing ‘the experimental method of reasoning into moral subjects.’ Hume and his younger friend Adam Smith rejected theories based on an assumed state of nature. At the center of Montesquieu's ideas is a systematic political and sociological thought structure, which is best manifested in his main work L'Esprit des Loix (1748), on which he worked almost uninterruptedly from 1731 to 1747, following his European tour. The unity of the work also stems from the method adopted in order to understand the repetition—in Europe, and in France in particular—of the revolutionary process. From a historical-sociological point of view Montesquieu explains slavery using a set of economic, demographic, and climatic factors based on the analysis of overseas plantation societies; from a moral viewpoint however, he condemns slavery as a manifestation of a despotic form of government and society. He sees it as diametrically opposed to the fundamental principle of moderation and the aim of every social and political order, to create a basic consensus and balance of interests between the various interests of power and social groups. Cavell proposes here a relation of the unattained and the attainable as constitutive for the self, that is, he makes the very question of attainability a central feature of a theory of selfhood. We write these “reflections” in the moment, as the impacts of the pandemic unfold around us daily. In the following, I maintain that with modernization two new mechanisms that enable us to constitute and stabilize identity are evolving: value generalization and an egosyntonic motive structure. I will illustrate both using data from a cohort comparison involving 100 65- to 80-year-old, 100 40- to 50-year-old, and 100 20- to 30-year-old subjects representative of the West German population. Kuhnian paradigms drew upon the philosophical reflections of Ludwig Wittgenstein (Wittgenstein 1953) and Michael Polanyi (Polanyi 1958) to stress the importance of knowledge that could not be reduced to rules or algorithms or even to words in a normal scientific tradition. My Reflection Of My Philosophy Of Education 1331 Words | 6 Pages. For example, aman may consent to a physician’s touching the man’stesticles as part of a testicular cancer exam upon thephysician’s suggestion (compare Kleinig 2010, 6–7). D.C. Phillips, in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2001. Rick Shearer. Both the ideas of a ‘decentring’ and of a ‘postmodern self’ question some major implications of the more standard sociological view of selfhood, namely the existence of the human self as a unit and its persistence as the ‘same’ self over time. March 27, 2016; Educational Philosophy, Essay, Ethics, Higher Education, Psychology, Social Philosophy; Education should prepare the human being for ongoing change and for the eventual crisis that might arise as a result of the transition. He demonstrated that types of government are to be understood in relation to their moral and physical infrastructure. Among sociologists of science, the symmetry principle led to an increasingly distanced approach even to present science, to the point of adopting the ethnographer's estranged perspective (Latour and Woolgar  1986). Slight, beneficial warming from more carbon dioxide! Furthermore, when there is an apparent conflict between science and philosophy, it is to philosophy that we must turn for the resolution. British liberal thinkers such as Jeremy Bentham and James Mill somewhat similarly tried to build a social and political theory upon the idea of a moral arithmetic. A daily reflection, for example, is when teachers take a few moments at the end of the day to debrief on the day's events. Key terms of Montesquieu's thought are ‘esprit général,’ ‘loix,’ and ‘modération,’ two of which appear in the subtitle of the work. The importance of of its comments in my syllabus should be obvious. Here Montesquieu explains that his book is about ‘the connection that the laws must have to the constitution of every government, to the morals, the climate, the religion, the commerce, etc.’ The basic term ‘loix’ therefore refers both to state laws and to natural structural laws which are derived from the analysis of complex empirical sets of facts (such as climate, soil, religion, etc.) Sociologists of science Barry Barnes and David Bloor took these claims as the basis of an approach called ‘constructivism’ (Golinski 1998), in which the development of scientific knowledge was to be explained without appeal to its truth or falsehood, on the grounds that the truth of a proposition is neither a necessary nor sufficient condition for its acceptance (Bloor  1991). This threefold shift in orientation was pioneered by the groups which have become known as the French philosophes and the Scottish moral philosophers. The ideas that are produced by reflection are the ideas such as love, hatred, pain, pleasure etc. Consent is considered fully i… get custom paper. The most immediate part of a speaker's message is the content, in other words those aspects dealing with information, actions, events and experience, as verbalised by them. After the Revolution of 1830, and having sworn—not without hesitation—the oath of allegiance to Louis-Philippe, he gave himself plenty of room as far as events were concerned by requesting a commission to conduct a survey into the American penitentiary system. These reflections also exhibit impressive diversity in their writing style, with a distinctive voice coming through in each one, yet they are all examples of philosophical thinking. The study focused on the understanding of moral rules and moral motivation (cf. ... On the other hand, Kantian philosophy could provide a more definitive answer, but such answer would definitely not consider emotions, because these are subjective factors that are not based on reason. For all these reasons, I think we are compelled to regard the contributions of philosophy as having greater value for us than the contributions of science. On the other hand, the observation of both multiple and changing basic orientations in human beings has led to the proliferation of the—infelicitously coined—term ‘postmodern identity’ as a new form of selfhood. Only in truly caring for something can a person feel inexchangeable. Introduced by UNESCO in 2002, this annual observation celebrates the subject while attempting to raise awareness about its value. The way the field is conceptualized also differs in the English-speaking world and in Europe, where philosophy is often seen as part of a distinctive mixed normative–descriptive discipline, pedagogics. Philosophers used exposition, synthesis, description, speculation, prescription, criticism etc., to discuss various concepts of philosophy and from these methods of philosophy originated. this doc had the information that i needed. D.C. Phillips, in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2001. The end goal is to achieve a higher level of understanding which results in rebalancing or changing your life in positive ways i.e. While emphasized in recent poststructuralist thought, similar ideas can be found, for instance, in Arendt's (1978, pp. Filed Under: Essays Tagged With: Epistemology, Existence. Even in the one sphere in which the contributions of science and philosophy are comparable — our knowledge of reality — philosophy, because it is noninvestigative, can answer questions that are beyond the reach of investigative science — questions that are more profound and penetrating than any questions answerable by science. Although some critics of this embedded view have feared that context impugns scientific autonomy and therefore validity, many recent studies have depicted the social, technological, and economic milieu of science as resources for scientific creativity, not merely as ideological contaminants (e.g., Wise 1989–90). After the February Days, he was witness to the clashes of June 23 to 26, 1848 which put ‘the haves’ at odds with the ‘have-nots.’ His Souvenirs (Recollections) (1951–, Vol. This ‘spirit’ or ‘common character’ results from the combined effect of various causes, including climate, religion, and commerce. These go to show that there is certainly not one good way of doing philosophy! As the idea of a general social science gained ground, various attempts were made to connect that idea to existing scholarly disciplines. Others, such as Saint-Simon, couched their analysis of early industrial society in a medical idiom, advocating a ‘social physiology.’ Conservative social theorists such as Edmund Burke, Joseph de Maistre and Louis de Bonald, by contrast, while recognizing the reality of ‘social relations’ and ‘society,’ opposed the notion of a natural science of society, and rather sought inspiration in theology, philosophy, and history. Third, it encouraged a broader exploration of the grounds for scientific conviction by enforcing a ‘symmetric’ treatment of reasons for embracing false as well as true beliefs. If we ask about moral progress in sociological terms, the most popular answer would be that: during the last few centuries, humans have become more morally rational. Reflections on My Teaching Philosophy. Their ‘felicific calculus,’ aimed at the greatest happiness of the greatest number, provided the means for assessing the utility of public institutions. When scientists such as Einstein, Bohr, and Heisenberg become involved with mixed questions, they must philosophize. This trip (April 1831 –February 1832), undertaken with his friend Gustave de Beaumont, resulted first in a report entitled Du Système pénitentiaire aux Etats-Unis et de son application en France (On the penitentiary system in the United States and its application in France) (1833), then the first two volumes of De la Démocratie en Amérique (Democracy in America) (1835), and finally what is known as the Second Démocratie (Second Democracy) (1840). In this brief survey, we shall be able to pursue only the Western line leading up to the emergence of sociology as an intellectual discipline in Western Europe and North America in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. His understanding of history, for which the terms rise, greatness, and decadence appear central, is still confined in the pre-enlightenment cyclical theory, while the teleological understanding of progress characteristic of Voltaire's work for example bears no systematic significance in Montesquieu's conception of history and society. The material culture of science, ranging from the architecture of the spaces in which science is done (Rheinberger et al. Self-Educated American recommends Mortimer J. Adler’s Ten Philosophical Mistakes. Philosophical thought can extend its inquiries into transempirical reality. By and large, the two traditions stood apart. Thus, from ancient Greece, the names of such men as Herodotus, Plato, Thucydides, and Aristotle stand out. This work can be divided into three main parts: the ‘books’ (Livres) I–XIII present a theory of the three basic forms of government monarchy, republic, and despotism, in topological form and with reference to Aristotle's Politeia; books XIV–XX examine the influence of material factors, particularly of climate and soil quality, on the structure of human societies and their traditions and institutions; finally in books XX–XXVIII the significance of social and economic factors such as trade and commerce, currency, population development, and religion for the traditions and laws of specific societies and their structures of government is analyzed. In one particular formulation, Cavell's reflections provide an example for a thinking about selfhood that does not presuppose an idea of identity, coherence, or consistency (Cavell 1989, 1990). Permalink. The sketched summary of contents outlines the basic aims and key terms of Montesquieu's theory of society. Philosophical Reflections. L'Ancien Régime et la Révolution (The Ancien Regime and the Revolution) appeared in 1856, the second great work which its author was anticipating expanding when tuberculosis cut short his life. The republic, for example, is connected with a mild climate and a small territory, despotism is limited in the main to large territories, but simultaneously represents a form of decline of the monarchy. In the former perspective, the philosophical maxim of thinking identity and difference as one double concept, rather than as one concept opposed to another, is translated into sociological thinking as the need to think self and other as a relation, rather than as a subject and a context or object. A short-lived Minister for Foreign Affairs under the Prince President of the Second Republic, Tocqueville was returned to his studies for good with the coup d'État of December 2, 1851. He cautions against ‘any fixed, metaphysical interpretation of the idea of a self’ and against the idea of ‘a noumenal self as one's “true self” and of this entity as having desires and requiring expression.’ In contrast, Cavell suggests that the ‘idea of the self must be such that it can contain, let us say, an intuition of partial compliance with its idea of itself, hence of distance from itself’ or, in other words, he advocates the idea of ‘the unattained but attainable self’ (Cavell, 1990, pp. Around the mid-twentieth century, the naive so-called ‘isms’ approach became popular, in which implications for education were deduced from broad philosophical positions such as realism. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. Philosophical essay writing must be done with a clear idea in mind and, for that, some structure is needed. Examples of philosophical reflection in a sentence, how to use it. Thomas S. Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (Kuhn  1970) broke decisively with this historiography, and stimulated new trends (not all to Kuhn's liking) in the history, sociology, and philosophy of science that have transformed the understanding of science and its growth in these fields since 1970. We are all living it right now. On Bertrand Russell’s “The Value of Philosophy… Get a verified writer to help you with Philosophy Reflection Paper. So it is that I include it in this selection of my writings; and do not want to tamper with it. This implied that science could not be cumulative in any progressive sense, one paradigm extending and building upon its predecessors. The final chapter (Livre XXIX) illustrates the pragmatic consequences of the consideration of material and social factors for the structure and development of two very different societies, using the examples of the laws of ancient Rome and medieval feudal society. Individuals and governments alike should promote the amount of happiness and reduce the amount of pain. Without the prescriptive knowledge given us by ethical and political philosophy, we have no guidance in the use of that power, directing it to the ends of a good life and a good society. I think I have applied most of these philosophical methodologies in philosophy classes. Moreover, this cannot stop me from achieving my desire to practice my chosen profession. G. Nunner-Winkler, in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2001. It has been proved that ideas from over 600 works can be found in his most important book. Home / Free Essays / Reflective / A Reflection on Philosophy Free A Reflection on Philosophy Essay Sample Even though it is considered as one of the oldest sciences or fields of human knowledge and practices, philosophy just like many other areas of disciplines still … If we apply this idea to the educational and developmental field it could mean that moral educational progress also develops through the development of moral feelings; through story telling and possibilities to put oneself in the shoes of others. Although they have been ‘appropriated’ as founding fathers by the practitioners of the established academic disciplines of philosophy and history, many of the problems they addressed lay in the area of what was later to become sociology. The three forms of governmental structure correspond to dominant values and mental reaction patterns, which influence both the behavior of the rulers and the thinking of the people: in the republic ‘virtue’ (‘vertu’), in the monarchy ‘honor’ (‘honneur’) and in despotism ‘fear’ (‘crainte’). On January 27, in a speech with a prophetic note, he announced the revolution which was to break out one month later. He sees Montesquieu both as one of the last ‘classical philosophers’ (‘philosophes classiques,’ p. 66) and ‘the first sociologist’ (‘le premier des sociologues,’ p. 66). They are incapable of enlarging our understanding by the second-order work, or philosophical analysis, with respect to ideas and all branches of knowledge. J. Goudsblom, J. Heilbron, in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2001. STANDING FAST BY THE JUDEO-CHRISTIAN HERITAGE, LIMITED GOVERNMENT & THE U.S. CONSTITUTION, The Importance of Philosophical Reflection — Mortimer J. Adler, A Defense of the Constitutions of the United States by John Adams, Debates On The Adoption Of The Federal Constitution, Democracy In America, by Alexis de Tocqueville, Demophilus: Principles of the English Constitution, Madison’s Notes: The Federal Convention of 1787, Second Treatise Of Government, By John Locke, Historical Documents: Western Civilization & The United States, Economics In One Lesson, by Henry Hazlitt, Missing the Mark With Religion, By Steve Farrell, Radical Academy: Root Principles & Common Sense, The Center for the Study of The Great Ideas.