Many believe that creative thinking techniques are based on experience, including Steve Jobs: Up to a point, then, developing students’ convergent thinking—as schoolwork often does by emphasizing mastery of content—facilitates students’ divergent thinking indirectly, and hence also their creativity (Sternberg, 2003; Runco, 2004; Cropley, 2006). Errors. Creative cognition involves perceptual processes when a creative insight is a direct result of the individual's original interpretation of experiences or associations. Kaufman, J. For example, you could say “I thought about 3 ways to introduce this lesson. Strategy 2. FastCo Design picked out their favorites, and among the top, was this brilliant and hilarious exercise where you take all your junk mail and use it as your project materials. Kim, K. (2006). Alpha/theta brain-waves are the reason many people have creative ah-ha experiences during a nap, a stroll, or some other mentally-relaxing activity. Types of Thinking 3. Not only is it the teachers’ job to evaluate students’ learning of particular ideas or skills, but also they have to do so within restricted time limits of a course or a school year. Testing their understanding may limit creative thinking; students will understandably focus their energies on learning “right” answers for the tests. Analysis of Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. If you are a mechanical engineer, for example, how would an architect view your problem? There is simply no creativity without "failure.". The more often you work on it, the better will be the results. Our analysis of a situation or a problem is based entirely on assumptions based on our past experience or "accepted knowledge." Expand Your Vision An excellent way to build your creative muscles is to read and explore outside your normal area of interest. The 10th-anniversary edition of the book is packed with 192 pages of content. A touch of ambiguous thinking during the idea generation stage of the creative process has the power to bring out genius-level ideas. Explore creativity and problem-solving, two fascinating cognitive psychology themes. In fact, many business schools have implemented creative thinking models into their curriculum. To come up with a creative idea, you will often need a new vantage point. Psychological science has much to contribute to working with a wide range of students including those who are labeled gifted, talented or creative. ), Definitions and conceptions of giftedness, pp. It is about having the insight about the possible solution. What follows are research-based techniques for generating more ideas or for increasing flexible and original thinking. Expand Your Vision Collaborative problem solving is catching on quickly. Further, the unconscious thought processes involved in creative thinking are at work during this stage. (2006). A problem may arise simply because we perceive a situation or condition through a set of false assumptions preventing clear thinking. Or if you are a product designer, how would an interior decorator approach your problem? Creativity and reason in cognitive development. If you pick a specific strategy, make a schedule that will let you work on it every day. There's really no shortage of opportunities to refine and develop your creativity. In pursuit, here are 35 psychology-based critical thinking strategies for use in your classroom. Strategy 7. Bensenville, IL: Scholastic Testing Service. Powers, A. THINKING - PSYCHOLOGY 1. Research shows that in terms of divergent thinking, problem solving, performance, and creative attitudes, creativity training is effective (Scott et. PRODUCTIVE THINKING occurs when you effectively combine Creative Thinking and Critical Thinking with relevant Knowledge-of-Ideas.When you're trying to "effectively combine" creativity & criticality & knowledge so you can solve a problem, asking “how do they interact?” is a useful question. 35 Psychology-Based Critical Thinking Strategies. Truly creative people in all fields of interest tend to automatically challenge both their own assumptions, and the "commonly accepted knowledge" about a problem. Introduction to Thinking 2. If a person types letters at random that form a poem by chance, the result may be beautiful, but it would not be creative by the definition above. Suppose, for example, that students have to be assessed on their understanding and use of particular vocabulary. Wisdom, intelligence, and creativity synthesized. Such opportunities present themselves daily at home, while driving to work, during meetings or lunch - or while just hanging out with friends. Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. Divergent thinking is stimulated by open-ended questions—questions with many possible answers, such as the following: Note that answering these questions creatively depends partly on having already acquired knowledge about the objects to which the questions refer. In R. Sternberg (Ed. It can be a challenge to push yourself and try new things. But carried to extremes, excessive emphasis on convergent thinking may discourage creativity. It’s important because it helps you look at problems and situations from a fresh perspective. Teachers can, for example, encourage students’ divergent thinking—ideas that are open-ended and that lead in many directions (Torrance, 1992; Kim, 2006). What is the most unusual use you can think of for a shoe. Here are a few critical thinking strategies for you in helping your students take the first few steps. Claxton, G., Edwards, L., & Constantinou, V. (2006). 1. In spite of these constraints, though, creativity still can be encouraged in classrooms at least some of the time (Claxton, Edwards, & Scale-Constantinou, 2006). Think of it as a mini-reference handbook to some of the techniques that can be used to come up with many different ideas. Learn inspirational strategies used to make decisions and foster ideas. This allows you to look beyond what is obvious or already accepted. Incidentally, a great side benefit of entering into the alpha/theta brain-wave state is virtually instant stress reduction! Draw a picture that somehow incorporates all of these words: cat, fire engine, and banana. Creative thinking is the ability to consider something in a new way. Illumination: In this stage a potential solution to the problem seems to be realized as if from nowhere. One of the most fundamental skills of creativity is the ability to recognize an opportunity and seize it. Posted on February 3, 2019 April 8, 2019 by Martin. So what strategies for creative problem solving do you favor? (2018, April 30). Innovating thinking often results from considering a problem people have, even if they don’t recognize it. If you're unwilling to take risks and deal with what ordinary people call "failure," then you cannot expect to become a great creative thinker. 47–62. The new frameworks assert the You are in an "alpha/theta" state when your brain is producing a predominance of slower brain-waves, as opposed to the faster beta brain-waves associated with normal waking consciousness. In this article, we are going to be looking at a variety of tips and strategies that you can use to think more effectively. Use creative instructional strategies, models, and methods as much as possible in a variety of domains. Take Some Risks 7 Fast and Effective Critical Thinking Strategies. New York: Cambridge University Press. It typically occurs in a spontaneous, free-flowing, "non-linear" manner, such that many ideas are generated in an emergent cognitive fashion. Critical thinking is the logical, sequential disciplined process of rationalizing, analyzing, evaluating, and interpreting information to make informed judgments and/or decisions. Thinking Skills In Psychology. 6 Conclusions. This can be especially useful when you are struggling to solve a creative problem. Many employers value creative thinkers, so consider highlighting your creative thinking skills … Tools 5. Strategy 1. Creative thinking is also important for other reasons: Thinking creatively provides immense freedom. Strategy 7. PSYCHOLOGY SECONDARY COURSE 67 Thinking and Problem Solving period. Sternberg, R. (2003). Such tools can be further explored at State-Dependent Recall Thinking 2. Creative minds. Cultivating creative mentalities: A framework for education. Use Alternative Thinking Accept Ambiguity Creativity is the ability to make or do something new that is also useful or valued by others (Gardner, 1993). Copyright © 2004 Dr Jill Ammon-Wexler. This approach can lead to some remarkable creative breakthroughs. It may seem difficult for you but later you will see how it is useful when studying. Runco, in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2001. In this sense divergent thinking depends partly on its converse, convergent thinking, which is focused, logical reasoning about ideas and experiences that lead to specific answers. This can be especially useful when you are struggling to solve a creative problem. Our Creative Thinking Task Cards are designed to provide many opportunities for creative thinking in your classroom. M. (2004). Tips to help teachers of creative, talented and gifted students improve how they think and learn, including avoiding ability-based credit and other strategies. & Baer, J. Educational Psychology. The ability to think ambiguously can yield amazing creative insights. We can see in the history of the world that, there had been several philosophers, poets, writers and painters who were drop outs of their school classes, predestined as backward students, created great works in their later life. Whatever the activity—composing a song, writing an essay, organizing a party, or whatever—it is more likely to be creative if the creator focuses on and enjoys the activity in itself, and thinks relatively little about how others may evaluate the activity (Brophy, 2004). The implications of these observations for improving creative thinking … We would otherwise spend all of our waking hours performing unnecessary mental analyzes of ordinary things. Embrace Your Problems ... Creative thinking is the ability to come up with new ideas or new ways in which something can be done. In praise of convergent thinking. Torrance, E. (1992). John Ingledew’s latest book, How to Have Great Ideas: A Guide to Creative Thinking, has a collection of over 50 strategies to get creatives back to being creative. Cropley, A. As a result, many times we see only what we expect to see. This often occurs later in life - when one's assumptions are no longer questioned, although time has passed and things have changed. Anyone can be creative; all you need is a different way of thinking.. New York: Cambridge University Press. Whether in school or out, creativity seems to flourish best when the creative activity is its own intrinsic reward, and a person is relatively unconcerned with what others think of the results. The experience is not restricted to a few geniuses, nor exclusive to specific fields or activities like art or the composing of music. 1. Each "failure" you encounter will actually supercharge your creativity by generating new information. A definition of creative thinking is as a way to look at and solve problems from a different perspective, avoiding orthodox solutions and thinking outside the box. Strategy 4. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. The first is that an important form of creativity is creative thinking, the generation of ideas that are new as well as ... We return to this point later in this chapter, when we discuss student-centered strategies of instruction, such as cooperative learning and play as a learning medium. Examples of creative thinking skills include visual art, problem-solving, communication skill, writing, composing music. (2006). In cognitive psychology, the term problem-solving refers to the mental process that people go through to discover, analyze, and solve problems. There can also be times to encourage experimentation with vocabulary through writing poems, making word games, or in other thought-provoking ways. The second is that creative thinking can be stimulated by teachers’ efforts. Creativity Research Journal, 18(1), 251–259. A willingness to take risks is at the very heart of creativity. creativity, the most widely known being the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (Torrance, 1962). This is ability is experienced (and built) when you indulge in wordplay or humor. Creative thinking and creative thinkers are needed in those situations because it pushes out of that linear way of thinking. Claxton, G., Edwards, L., & Constantinou, V. (2006). The most basic approach is to recognize that a "problem" may actually be a golden opportunity for a creative explosion - and seize the moment. In Keys to Drawing with Imagination by Bert Dodson, you can learn tons of great strategies and exercises for creative thinking. Model creativity for students in the way you speak and the way you act. The first is that an important form of creativity is creative thinking, the generation of ideas that are new as well as useful, productive, and appropriate. To some extent, therefore, learning content and experimenting or playing with content can both find a place—in fact one of these activities can often support the other. This creative process allows you to explore connections, meet new challenges and seek solutions that are unusual, original and fresh.. Creating thinking is a way to develop novel or unorthodox solutions that … By working to solve the problem in each scenario, you challenge students to use ‘out of the box’ and imaginative ideas to communicate their solution to others. Divergent thinking, creativity, and giftedness. (2004). Modern neuroscience has shown that our brains are literally rewired each time we learn something new by "making a mistake." Creative thinking includes analysis, open-mindedness, problem-solving, organization, and communication. One example is the whiteboard. How many uses can you think of for a cup? The “something” can be an object (like an essay or painting), a skill (like playing an instrument), or an action (like using a familiar tool in a new way). Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Dr. Michael D. Mumford, Department of Psychology, The University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019. Based on … But assessment does not have to happen constantly. Cultivating creative mentalities: A framework for education. This mental attitude is the true source of all of the world's great inventions and businesses. New York: Basic Books. But consciously entering into an alpha/theta state can be a challenge. And it leads straight to the creative breakthroughs you're looking for. To be creative, the object, skill, or action cannot simply be bizarre or strange; it cannot be new without also being useful or valued, and not simply be the result of accident. Seek Out Ambient Noise A colleague told me that when he was a student many years ago he started musing about mobile phones – what they would be in 10 and 20 years’ time.